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GOVT - Ch 5

Civil Rights

TermDefinition
civil rights The rights of all Americans to equal treatment under the law (Fourteenth Amendment).
equal protection clause Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that no state shall "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
fundamental right A basic right of all Americans, such as First Amendment rights.
suspect classification A classification, such as race, that provides the basis for a discriminatory law.
rational basis test A test (known as "ordinary-scrutiny" standard) used by the Supreme Court to decide whether a discriminatory law violates the equal protection clause of the Constitution.
separate-but-equal doctrine A Supreme Court doctrine holding that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not forbid racial segregation as long as the facilities for blacks were equal to those for whites.
de jure segregation Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or decisions by government agencies.
de facto segregation Racial segregation that occurs not as a result of deliberate intentions but because of past social and economic conditions and residential patterns.
busing The transportation of public school students by bus to schools physically outside their neighborhoods to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
civil rights movement The movement in the 1950s and 1960s, by minorities and concerned whites, to end racial segregation.
civil disobedience The deliberate and public act of refusing to obey laws thought to be unjust.
sit-in A tactic of nonviolent civil disobedience. Demonstrators remained seated in a public place until forcibly removed or until their demands are met.
suffrage The right to vote; the franchise.
feminism The belief in full political, economic, and social equality for women.
glass ceiling An invisible but real discriminatory barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to top positions of power or responsibility.
sexual harassment Unwanted physical contact, verbal conduct, or abuse of a sexual nature that interferes with a recipient's job performance, creates a hostile environment, or carries with it an implicit or explicit threat of adverse employment consequences.
affirmative action A policy calling for the establishment of programs that give special consideration, in jobs and college admissions, to members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past.
reverse discrimination Discrimination against those who have no minority status.
quota system A policy under which a specific number of jobs, promotions, or other types of placements, such as university admissions, must be given to members of selected groups.
Created by: lisagrand