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Amer. Hist. Ch. 19

American History Ch. 19 Vocab & People

Nationalism a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Militarism the development of armed forces and their use as a tool for diplomacy
Allies a formal agreement or union between nations
Central Powers the group of nations - led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire - that apposed the Allies in World War I
Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne; killed by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip as he drove through Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnian
Woodrow Wilson President that declared WWI
Alliance system
no man's land Between the trenches lay "no man's land" - a barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire.
trench warfare when armies fought for mere yards of ground, this lasted for 3 years
Lusitania a British liner sunk by a German U-boat off the southern coast of Ireland. One of the worst disasters; occurred on May 7, 1915. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans
Zimmerman Note a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico-the telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico & Germany and promised that if war with the U.S. broke out Germany would support Mexico in recovering lost territory
Selective Service Act the act passed in May 1917 required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service
convoy system when a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) U.S. forces led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during WWI. Also nicknamed "doughboys" because of the white belts they wore, which they cleaned with pipe clay, or "dough"
John J. Pershing Under John Pershing, American forces helped to stop the German advance, capturing important enemy positions. After the war, Pershing was made General of the Armies of the U.S.-highest rank given to an officer.
Alvin York American war hero, a redheaded mountaineer and blacksmith from Tennessee, York sought exemption as a conscientious objector
conscientious objector a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, pointing out that the Bible says, "Thou shalt not kill."
armistice a truce (cease fire) that ended WWI
War Industries Board (WIB) an agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries.
propaganda a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions
Espionage and Sedition Acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort
Schenck vs. U.S. (1919) a unanimous Supreme Court upheld Schenck's conviction, stating that under wartime conditions, the words in the leaflets were not protected by the right to free speech
Fourteen Points the principles making President Woodrow Wilson's plan for world peace following World War I
League of Nations an association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace
Georges Clemenceau the French premier that lived through two German invasions of France and was determined to prevent future invasions. Was one of the "Big Four" that worked on the Treaty of Versailles.
David Lloyd George the British prime minister that won re-election on the slogan "Make Germany Pay." Was one of the "Big Four" that worked on the Treaty of Versailles.
reparations the compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war.
war-guilt clause a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War I.
Henry Cabot Lodge head of the conservative senators that were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression, even though it was voluntary. They wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war included in the treaty