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Age of Exploration S

Age of Exploration Study Guide

Who were the First Americans? Paleo-Indians
Where were the First Americans from? Asia
When did they come? 8,000 B.C.
Why did the First Americans come to America? They were following the animals
How did the First Americans come to the Americas? Bering Land Bridge
The Makah of the Pacific Northwest? Lived in Northwest Washington. Had a ranking system. Whalers got food and butchers carved whale, meat, and other game. Lots of tree, often foggy and cloudy. Ate whales, seals, and caribou. Lived in wooden lodges. Worshiped nature spirits.
The Hopi of the Southwest? Lived in Arizona. Had shamans as leaders. Men were skilled farmers. Women made clothing, baskets, and pots. Dry, arid, needed water to grow crops. Ate corn, squash, turkey, and beans. Lived in adobe houses set in mud. Performed rain dances.
The Mandan of the Plains? Lived in North Dakota. Had a ranking system. Woman tended fields of crops like squash, corn, and tobacco. Men hunted buffalo, bears, and other animals. Ate buffalo, antelope, corn, fish. Lived in rounded homes called tepees. Had a dance called Okia.
The Iroquois of the Northeast? Lived in modern=day New York. Had a League of Nations, 6 tribes combined. Men hunted, women farmed. Summer was hot, winter was cold. Ate corns, beans, squash. Lived in longhouses. Had harvest festivals, worshiped nature.
The Creek of the Southeast? Lived in Georgia. Had elected chief, peace and war clans. People farmed, hunted, cut, and wooded. Was like flatland. Ate corns, squash, fish. Lived in wig wam and grass houses. Had green corn festivals.
The Aztec of Central America? Lived in Mexico. Had emperors. People were builders, warriors, farmers, merchants, and emperors. Was high altitude, very cold. Ate maize, tortillas. Lived in stone houses. Worshiped sun and war gods, did human sacrifice.
What did North America have that attracted settlers to it? Unused land, lots of game, Native Americans
What was the population of Native Americans living in North America before 1492? 2 to 10 million
What are some events that pulled Europe out of the Dark Ages and made exploration possible? Crusades brought trade and wealth. Renaissance was rebirth in art, literature, science. Printing Press invented by Johannes Gutenberg. With money and knowledge, European rulers could explore lands. The Catholic Church poured money into art and education.
What are the 2 major inventions for sea exploration? The caravel is a ship that used triangular sails to sail against the wind and had rudders to improve steering. The astrolabe is a device that enabled navigators to learn their ship's position by charting the position of the stars.
Why did African kings participate in the slave trade? They could get guns, horses, and other goods.
Why did Europeans start western sea exploration? Wanted gold, silk, spices, and jewels of Asia. Wanted to bypass Muslims and Silk Road for all the profits. Wanted to find faster shorter routes to Asia. Portugal controlled routes around Africa, so countries wanted to find other routes.
What are the 4 "g" reasons why explorers sought to explore? Gold - jewels, minerals, spices, silk Glory - riches, reputation, legacy God - spread Christianity Grades - learning about the sea, land, and cultures
What are the "fab five" countries to explore and settle in the Americas? Spain, Portugal, England, France, and Holland
Lief Erikson Worked for Norway. Goal: sail to Greenland. Accomplishment: blown off course when going to Greenland, found new land, called it Vinland, had to go back because natives attacked.
Amerigo Vespucci Worked for Spain. Goal: explore South America. Accomplishment: first to know land Columbus found wasn't Asia, but an unknown continent, German mapmaker called it America.
Ferdinand Magellan Worked for Spain. Goal: claim land for Portugal. Accomplishment: died during voyage, ship was first to circumnavigate the world.
Hernan Cortes Worked for Spain. Goal; conquer Mexico; gold, glory, God. Accomplishment: conquered Aztec Empire.
Francisco Pizarro Worked for Spain. Goal: conquer South America; Gold, Glory, God. Accomplishment: conquered Inca Empire and Spain was now controlled.
Juan Ponce de Leon Worked for Spain. Goal: gold, glory; colonize Florida, find Fountain of Youth. Accomplishment: conquered Puerto Rico, 1st to reach U.S. mainland, reached Florida.
Hernando de Soto Worked for Spain. Goal: explore coastal region of Gulf of Mexico and find new land to conquer. Accomplishment: explored Gulf of Mexico, 1st European to discover Mississippi River.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Worked for Spain. Goal: explore Southwest U.S. Accomplishment: survived 1527 Narvaez expedition.
Francisco Vasquez de Cornado Worked for Spain. Goal: find legendary Seven Cities of Gold in Southwest U.S. Accomplishment: never found legendary Seven Cities of Gold, explored Mexico, Arizona, 1st European to see Grand Canyon
John Cabot Worked for England. Goal: find the northwest passage. Accomplishment: didn't find passage, but claimed North American coast for England.
Giovanni da Verrazano Worked for France. Goal: find the northwest passage. Accomplishment: didn't find passage, sailed along North Carolina up to New York.
Jacques Cartier Worked for France. Goal: find the northwest passage, explore North America, claim lands for France. Accomplishment: didn't find passage, claimed Canada for France.
Henry Hudson Worked for Netherlands. Goal: find the northwest passage. Accomplishment: didn't find passage, claimed Hudson River for Dutch and Hudson Bay for England.
Rene Robert de La Salle Worked for France. Goal: find land and claim it for France. Accomplishment: claimed Mississippi Valley for France now called Louisiana.
Christoper Columbus First voyage on October 12, 1492. Worked for Spain. Goal: wanted to find Asia for gold and spices. Accomplishment: landed in Bahamas (San Salvador), first explorer to cross Atlantic, believed he was in Asia
What areas in the Americas did the Fab Five Countries occupy? Spain: Central America France: Canada Netherlands: Modern-day New York England: North American Coastline Portugal: Brazil
What came from the Old World to the New World? New World to the Old World? Old World to New World: bananas, cattle, chickens, citrus fruit, coffee beans, grapes, horses, onions, pigs, rice, sugarcane, wheat. New World to Old World: beans, cacao, maize, peanuts, pineapples, pumpkins, squash, potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes, turkeys.
What was the Encomienda System? The Encomienda System was a system that gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or make them work. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity.
What was the impact of the diseases the Europeans brought? From 1492 to 1542, the Native American population fell from 500,000 to 270,000. The Native American population fell from 11,000,000 to 2,000,000 in Mexico from 1492 to 1542. Many Native Americans dies because of the diseases the Europeans brought.
Who was Bartolome de Las Casas? Bartolome de Las Cases was a Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar who told the Europeans to "go easy" on the Native Americans. He didn't like the way the Europeans treated the Native Americans.
What are the positive and negative effects of the Age of Exploration? Negative: Many Native Americans were tortured and killed. Families were separated and culture was killed. Positive: Columbian Exchange, found new and unused land.
Created by: wazup94