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Exam 1

American politics

QuestionAnswer
Totalitarianism A form a government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interests and without regard for individual rights and liberities
Democracy A systems of government that gives power that gives power to the people, whether directly or through ejected representative.
Oligarchy A form of government in which the rich to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth social status,military position or achievement.
Aristocracy Rule of the wealthy
Mayflower Compact and it's significance? A document written by the piligrims while at sea enumerating the scope of their government and its expectations and its expections of citizens.
Thomas Hobbes English theorist (1588-1679)Hobbes argued that people must give up certain rights to Government he believes that without govt. life will be (solitary,poor,nasty,brutish and short)signed the social contract. He also argues that Man was war like
John locke Locke(1632-1704) argued that a government's major responsibility was the perservation of private partyand idea that found it's way to the U.S. Constitution also to make laws without penalties.(life,Energy,property) (Popular Soverignty)
Jean Jacque Rousseau (1672)argument "you don't give up your natural freedom and you get a direct democracy.
State Of Nature From wilderness to the community meaning (solitary,poor,nasty,brutish and short).
Direct democracy A system of government in which members of the polity meet the discuss all policy meet to discuss all policy meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule.
Indirect democracy A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who work on their behalf.
14th Amendment Equal Protection under the law
Popular Consent The Principle that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed
Popular Soveren the notion that the ultimate authority in society rests with the people
Majority rule The central premise of direct democracy in which only policies that collectively garner the support of a majority of voters will be made into law.
Declaration of independence document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain
Ethnic Composition Ethnic groups
Citizenship If you are born and raised in a country you get automatic citizenship, or if you want to claim residency in a country
Conservative one who believes that a government is best that governs least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal and economic rights.
liberalism one who favors governmental involvement in the economy and in the provision of social services and who takes an activist role in protecting the rights of women,the elderly, minorities and the environment.
libertarian one who believes in limited government and no governmental interference in personal liberties.
Term Limits 2 yrs-25 yrs old 6 yrs-30 yrs old 7 yrs- in country to be president you must be 35 yrs native born of the country and must have lived 14 yrs in the country and you can only be able to run for a 4 year term.
The Consitution Was written in 1776 it is a document establishing the structure,functions, and limitations of a government.
Stamp Act Meeting of representatives of nine of the 13 colonies held in NYC in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated.
Quartering Act An an act passed by British Parliament to ensure that British soldiers would be properly billeted and fed during their times of service in the North American Colonies. In fact, Parliament passed two separate Quartering Acts, one in 1765 and another in 177
Sugar Act 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merch
Townshend Act Series of 1767 laws named for Charles Townshend, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasurer). These laws placed new taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Colonial reaction to these taxes was the same as to the Sugar Act and Stamp Act, and Brit
Coercive Act Properly known as the Restraining Acts, the Coercive Acts, as they were popularly known in England, were introduced in 1774 by the new government of Lord North, who acted with the direct encouragement of George III. Example Boston Tea Party
Thomas Paine Common Sense
Unitary System System of government where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
Confederacy Different sub-units giving ultimate power.
Federalism the distribution of power in an organization (as a government) between a central authority and the constituent units — compare
Articles of confederations The articles were written to give the colonies some sense of a unified government. Once the thirteen colonies became the thirteen states, however, each one began to act alone in its own best interest. A new governing document was needed in order for these
Shay's Rebellion Daniel Shay was given a lot of land.It was also a catalyst for creation of the consitution. it was the first battle of the revolutionary war which lead to the winning over lexington.
Constitutional Convention the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the former Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the constitution of the United States was framed.
Virginia Plan The First general plan for the consitution offered in philadelphia its key points were a bicameral legislature and an executive and a judiciary chosen by the national legislature. by james madison
New Jersey plan A framework for the Constitutional proposed by a group of small states. its key points were a one house legislature with one vote for each state a congress with the ability to raise revenue and a supreme court with members appointed for life.
The Great Compromise the final decision of the consitutional convention to create a two house legislature with the lower house elected by the people and with powers divided between the two houses. It also made national law supreme.
Electoral College Representatives of each states who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president.
Impeachment The power delegated to the House of Representatives in the consitution to charge the president,Vice Prez, or other civil officers including federal judges to be removed from office
Seperation of powers , who wrote it first Montesquien wrote the first theory that their should be a seperation of powers from state and local and federal govt.
Checks and Balances A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others.
Constitutional articles The main body of the Constitution is made up of seven articles. The Articles explain how the government works. They also carefully describe the rules for electing government officials, like Senators and the President.its based on the separation of powers.
Enumerated Powers 17 specific powers granted to congress under article 1. section 8 of the consitution.
Implied Powers powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause.These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers.
Supremacy clause Portion of article VI of the U.S. Consitutiona mandating that national law is supreme to all laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government.
Full Faith and Credit Clause Section of Article IV of the consitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state.
Bill of Rights The First ten Amendements to the U.S. constitution which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties.
Amendment Process The process of changing or adding to the US Constitution. The original writers of the Constitution decided to make this task difficult by stating that 2/3 of Congress had to approve it; and after that, 3/4 of the states had to approve it. This process is
How can the constitution be changed Only the Congress or the states can actually CHANGE the Constitution. The only way to actually CHANGE it is via a constitutional amendment. Congress or the states can initiate that, and the amendment has to be ratified by a fixed number of states before i
Police Powers The inherent authority of a government to impose restrictions on private rights for the sake of public welfare, order, and security.
Privileges and immunities clause Part of Article IV of the constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states.
Tenth Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Ex post facto laws Law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed
State compact Any state or US territory that is a member of the Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision which provides supervision and transfer of offenders subject to the terms of the compact.
Marshall Court The Marshall Court was the Supreme Court under John Marshall. Thurgood Marshall was never Chief Justice.
Marbury v. Madison 1803 Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of judicial review by finding that the congressional statute extending the courts original juridiction was unconstitutional.
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 The supreme court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax federal bank using the consitiutions supremacy clause.The courts broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later ruli
Gibbions v.Ogden 1824 The supreme courts uphold broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The courts broad interpretation of the constitutionals commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.
Taney court Roger Brooke 1777-1864. American jurist who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1836-1864). In the Dred Scott decision (1857) he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens.
Dred Scott v. sandford 1857 The Supreme Court concluded that the U.S. congress lacked the constitutional authority to bar slavery in the territories. This decision narrowed the scope of national power, while it enhanced that of the states.
Civil War The war in the United States between the Union and the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865. Also called War Between the States.
13th amendment One of the 3 civil war amendments bans slavery in the U.S.
14th amendment One of the 3 civil war amendments guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all U.S. Citizens.
15th amendment One of the 3 civil war amendments specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
16th amendment Authorizes congress to enact a national income tax.
17th amendment Senators directly elected by the people, removed their selection from state legislature.
The Great Depression the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s. a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment depression.
FDR 32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)
Cooperative Federalism The intertwined relationship between the national,state,and local governments that began with the new deal.
Preemption A concept that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain areas.
Great Society Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Soc
New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the U.S. federal government to the states. The primary objective of New Federalism typically involves the federal government providing block grants to the states to resolve a
Categorical Grant Grant the allocates federal funds to states fro a specific purpose.
Block Grant A large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines.
mandates An official order or commission to do something or Give (someone) authority to act in a certain way
Unfunded Mandates "An unfunded mandate is a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, yet provides no money for fulfilling the requirements.
Created by: jreyes0