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Civil War Midterm

History130 Identification Items

TermImportance
The Wilmot Proviso, 1846 PA Democrat David Wilmot Prohibits slavery in new western territories (Mex, CA, NM) -by making new territories free, upsets the balance of free/slave states, Union will eventually gain majority threatening to destroy the Southern culture, leads to Compromise of 1850
The Fugitive Slave Act, 1850 (in compromise) effects runaway slaves to Northern free states Runaway slaves caught in the North could be returned to slavery in the South without fair trail -further separates North and South by sectional priorities, unfair process because catchers don't need any legal documentation to return a slave and collect $
Popular Sovereignty, 1850 (then in election of 1860) main advocate, Stephen A. Douglas States given right to decide by popular vote to be free/slave state -awards states rights, part of compromise to appease South, failed attempt to accommodate slavery, does not cause balance btwn. N and S (bleeding Kansas, illegal voting)
Forts Henry and Donelson (Union victory) February 1862, Confederate troops stationed btwn. KY, TN along Mississippi and Cumberland Rivers Union staged land and water capture of CSA forts, led by Ulysses S. Grant, captured Henry then Donelson -Union victory begins the campaign to control the MI River, huge loss of CSA supplies, Union border-states solidified in victory, Grant is bold genera
Clement Vallandigham, arrested April 1863 leader of "Knights" in the N to promote treasonous CSA success Denounced draft and declares CSA sympathies, sentenced to prison for disloyal opinions -threatened Union politics and banished to CSA as P.O.W., revealed conflict btwn. Lincoln's exec. power and Removal Act, he was tried on a charge unknown to law
Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 Lucretia Mott, Cady Stanton for women's movement Announced "Declaration of Sentiments" to address denial of human rights bc. men dominated women's decisions -opened up women's equality in church/school/orgs, women could own property/hold men's professions/make decisions (men had previously dominated)
The Crittenden Resolution, December 1861 (Amendment proposal during the secession crisis) Committee of 13 senators, John Crittenden KY Prohibits slavery in national territory N of 36*30' line, but permitted establishment/protection S of line, allows any state to enter Union, prevents congress from abolishing slavery -disagreed w/ Wilmot Proviso already in effect, extended slavery
The Morrill Land Grant Act, June 1862 dedicated to Justin S. Morrill Land grant money given to states for the development of higher education, all states equalized for the purpose of education -land sold could be used for war, but the money was used for education in all states in support of preexisting colleges/creation
The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Stephen A. Douglas as repeal to Missouri Compromise Created new territories of KS/NE, opens new land for settlement, allowed to decide by popular sovereignty free/slave -false voters rushed to vote for/against slavery the left the territory, violent outbreaks (cane beating), opp. to act created Republican
The Anaconda Plan, 1861 (early war strategy) Winfield Scott, Union Close off S w/ gunboats on MI/coast, cut off supplies to CSA (S is huge, difficult to control all of) -blockade exports to Europe, hurt CSA economy slowly, river war cut off supplies, opp. criticized the slow speed of plan (should attack Richmond ASAP)
The "Twenty Negro" Law, CSA conscription 1862 passed by CSA congress, effects slaveholders Plantation owners of 20+ slaves were exempted from the CSA draft so they could keep watch over their slaves during the war (pos. contribution to war effort -kept wealthy out of war, unfair for poor soldiers, turns classes against eachother over same caus
Dred Scott, purchased as slave 1833- trial until 1857 Missouri is a slave state MO slave, but moved w/ master to free state Illinois, then back to MO and testifies he should be allowed free -trial rules that Negros are not citizens (can't testify), can't take property away from slaveholder (against the MO compromise to ban slavery)
Roger B. Taney, 1857 ruling in Dred Scott Decision chief justice MD Declared that all blacks (free/slave) are not citizens, 1850 Compromise unconstitutional bc. Congress can't declare what property is not allowed (void 36*30') -new anti southern sentiment in N, radical who challenged federal legislation/congress. rights
Charles Sumner, 1856 incident Mass. Senator Denounced slavery in S as a "rape" of the community, Preston Brooks (cousin SC senator Butler) beat Sumner w/ cane -angry N shown symbol of S's barbarism, Republicans increase anti-S/slavery efforts, S responds pos. standing up for slaveholders
Joseph E. Brown, GA gov. GA secession December 1860 Immediately chose to secede the day after Lincoln's election, loyal to CSA independence but wanted GA as separate peace away from S's unfair tax/conscription -state's rights further limited under the CSA, denied sovereignty of state, Davis' imperial powe
Stephen A. Douglas, Democratic IL Senator ran against Lincoln in 1860 election Proposed idea of popular sovereignty to appease S in 1850 Compromise, used again in his Lincoln debates (no yet ready to allow blacks as citizens, states' rights as main priority of presidency) -influential legislation and presidential candidate ...?
Created by: cmollendyke