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Gilded Age

When was the Gilded Age? 1860 - 1900
The Gilded age was marked by __ Presidents and a __ government Lackluster presidents and a laissez-faire government
What party + years was Ulysses S. Grant? Republican; 1868-76
What party + years was Rutherford B. Hayes? Republican; 1876-1880
What party + years was James Garfield? Republican; 1881-1884
What party + years was Clester A. Arthur? Republican; 1881-1884
What party + years was Grover Cleveland? (2) Democrat; 1884-88; 1892-96
What party + years was Benjamin Harrison? Republican; 1888-92
hat two things happened during Ulysses S. Grant’s presidency? Panic of 1873 + Credit-mobilizer Scandal (bribery scandal by fed gov)
Which president was killed and why? James Garfield was assassinated by Charles Guiteau because Guiteau thought by killing Garfield the VP (who was from the same political group) would pardon + employ him
Who created the Pendleton Act? Clester A. Arthur
What was the Pendleton Act? Civil Service Reform in which Fed. jobs now given for ability, not politics
What did Grover Cleveland try to do? Lower the Tariff (was hampered by Panic of 1893)
What did Benjamin Harrison do? Raised Tariff to 48.4% as he was pro-business
Who supported the Democrats? Southerners, Rurals, Irish-Immigrants
Who supported the GOP? Northerners, Urbans, Industries, Blacks
Which party was pro-tariff and which was anti-tariff? GOP was pro, Democrats were anti.
What is the importance of the railroads? They tied the nation together, fueled the industrial revolution (mass transportation of goods and resources) , increased urbanization, and allowed for Midwest farming.
How did the Federal government treat the railroads? They subsidized for them and gave them lots of free land due to bribery and cheating.
When was the Transcontinental RR completed? 1869
What is Cornelius Vanderbilt known for? Shipping, then railroads.
What were the problems with the RRs? By the 1870s there were too many - caused economic problems: -Monopoly on Mass goods = Price gauging = Cheating the customers
What did farmers want the government to do about railroads and how did the Supreme Court respond? They demanded the states regulate RRs, but the Supreme Court rules against state regulation
What Act regulated RRs and when was it passed? Interstate Commerce Act - 1887
What is John D. Rockefeller known for? Standard oil
How did Rockefeller make oil refineries more efficient? With kerosene
How did Rockefeller deal with competition? He either forced or bought them out - horizontal integration + monopoly (He subscribes to Social Darwinism)
What is Social Darwinism? Survival of the fittest - “justifies” inequality in society during Gilded Age
What is Andrew Carnegie known for? Steel + Gospel of Wealth
How did Andrew Carnegie maximize production? By controlling every aspect of production - vertical integration
Who and when did Carnegie sell his steel to? J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $225 million
What is the Gospel of Wealth? Belief that responsibility comes with wealth and the rich should give their money to charity
What three things does mechanization of the workplace ensure? Consistency, Efficiency, more production
What new source of energy is used in the mechanization of the workplace? Arithracite Coal as it’s cheap and burns hotter
Who wrote Scientific Management - Theory of Work and what is it about? Fredrick Winstow Taylor; Focuses on time + efficiency (leads to the assembly line)
What changes occurred in advertising and sales? Mail-order catalogs (Sears+Roebuck - West + Midwest), chain stores, department stores
When was there a huge influx of immigrants and where did they tend to settle? 1860-1921; Eastern + Midwestern industrial cities
Where were the new immigrants coming from? Southern + Eastern Europe, Ireland, China
What 3 religions came over with the new immigrants? Catholics, Jews, Orthodox
What were the three xenophobic views of the new immigrants? 1) They refuse to assimilate and will ruin society 2) They’ll take their jobs 3) Racism
How did employment change with the influx of immigrants? Cost of labor went down (angering unions) and the employers pitted immigrants against one another
What system was dominant in the Gilded Age? Wage-labor
How did the wage-labor system change working conditions? Workers had less power and no say in production, the manager class was created, and workers were marginalized
What is specialization of workers and what does it result in? Taking complicated processes and turning them into a series of simple steps; allows skilled labor to be replaced with unskilled labor and all workers to become easily replacable.
Who enters the workforce and who is still barred from most industrial opportunities it? Women enter, Blacks barred
What 6 problems were there with the working conditions? Low pay, cramped factories, child labor, dangerous conditions (mines), long hours, company towns
What is the Socialist Party’s ideology? The government should control industry and resources to create a more egalitarian society
Why are labor unions formed? To protect the interests of the workers through strength in numbers
When was the National Labor Union formed? 1866-1873
What did the National Labor Union want? Worker-run factories to compete with the wage system - a very lofty goal
What did the National Labor Union accomplish? 300,000 members + the 8 hour workday for government employees
Why did the National Labor Union perish? Panic of 1873 + they only accepted skilled white men
When were the Knights of Labor formed? 1870s-80s
Who did the Knights of Labor include? Skilled + unskilled men, women, and Blacks
What were the goals of the Knights of Labor? Abolish child labor, graduated income tax, higher wages, 8 hr workday
Why did the Knights of Labor perish? In 1886 a Union picnic in Hay market square in Chicago was broken up by cops - Anarchists three a bomb at the cops killing several - huge melee - KOL painted as violent radicals
Who created the American Federation of Labor and what were they made up of? Samuel Gompers; made of skilled, local unions
When was the Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed and what was it used for? 1896; meant to go against big business trusts but the Fed. gov. uses it to break up Unions.
What years did the population of cities triple? 1860-1890
Why did the population of cities triple? They attracted rural youth, immigrants, and Southern Blacks
What is the importance of cities? 90% of all manufacturing occurred in cities and they gave distribution points for trade
How did the landscape change with cities? Skyscrapers, public sewage/water, elevated trains, and subways
What were the characteristics of slums? Cheap housing, overpopulation, disease-ridden, full of immigrants, dumbell tenements
What is the Boss System? Political system where a political party creates a large apparatus to organize and buy votes
What boss was famous for the Boss System? Boss Tweed
How did Democrats in NYC use the Boss System? They have immigrants city jobs in exchange for lifelong party allegiance
Who wrote the Frontier Thesis and what does it argue? Frederick Jackson Turner; argues that the frontier experience created unique American characteristics (adventurous, optimistic, bold, independent)
When did the frontier close? 1890
What happened to buffalo as Americans pushed West? The herds dwindled, thus Indians fought one another for survival
When did the Reservation System exist? 1860-87
What is the Reservation System? The US gov. pushes Indians into pre-determined, unwanted land, and resistance meant war
What was the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887? Reservations were broken up in 160 acre plots and given to individual families - extra land was given to whites. Indian schools were created - cultural genocide
Why was farming difficult? Weather, locust, fungus, and cost
How did machines change farming? Greater effieciency made farmers buy into the system, creating greater debt. Everyone grows more, thus the crop prices drop and cause even more debt, while railroads exploit farmers and the fed. gov. does little.
When did the Populist Party exist? 1890s
What was the precursor to the Populist Party? The grange, which was a social organization for farmers
What were the goals of the populist party? Free coinage of silver (helps debt), federal financial support for farmers, graduated income tax, gov. control over RRs and telegraphs, abolition of national banks, one term presidencies, and anti-immigration.
What were the problems of the populist party? They were powerful but only as a regional party, they failed to attract Southern farmers (racism) and industrial workers
How did the Election of 1896 involve the Populists? The Democrats stole the Populist Platform - William Jennings Bryan “Cross of Gold” speech for free coinage of silver
Created by: RuJa 4EVA