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US History II Exam*

Sand Creek Massacre Nov 29, 1864: Troops under John M. Chivington massacred peaceful Indians in response to attacks on travelers, which was initially in response to mistreatment and attempted displacement.
John M. Chivington was responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre, leading Colorado troops in the massacre of an estimated 70–163 peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho.
Geronimo was a war chief who was notorious for urging and leading retaliatory raids against Mexico and parts of the US. He resisted calvary in Arizona, New Mexico and Western Texas, and was one of the last resistors.
Chief Crazy Horse was the war leader of the Oglala Lokata. He fought the US to defend against encroachments on territories and way of life of Lokata people. His most significant victory was the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.
Chief Red Cloud was a war leader and the chief of Oglala Lokata. He made a trip to Washington, DC and was thus convinced that peace is the only rational choice due to size and strength of US. He was responsible for the transition to reservation life of his people.
Helen Hunt Jackson was a highly critical activist for the proper treatment of the Indian people and spoke out against violation of Indian treaties. She wrote a critical response entitled, "A Century of Dishonor" in 1881.
John Muir was an essential voice in conservationist efforts. He wrote letters, essays and books telling of his experiences in nature and pleading for its conservation.
Alexander Graham Bell was responsible for the invention of the telephone.
Tycoons are the financial elite, leaders of industry and commerce. They often have power through financial reigns.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887) was designed to regulate the monopolistic practices of the railroad industry. The act required that railroads publicise shipping rates and prohibited discrimination
Railroads The railroad industry became the largest business enterprise in the world. Heavy indebtedness, overextended systems and crooked business practices forced a reckless competition for traffic.
Andrew Carnegie was responsible for a large portion of railroad and steel expansion and the growth of corporate organisation and management.
Bessemer Process was named after its inventor: Henry Bessemer. It removed impurities from iron by oxidation.
JP Morgan was a financier and investment banker with the financial means to save the railroad industry when the national depression forced roads into his hands. He reorganised their administration, refinanced their degts and built intersystem alliances.
Vertical Integration is the mangerial control of all aspects of manufacturing.
John D. Rockefeller was a leading industrialist, dominating the oil industry aggresively.
George Eastman was an innovator and entrepreuner who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, bringing photography to the mainstream.
Knights of Labor was the largest and one of the most important American labor organisations of the 1880s. It combined skilled and unskilled workers. They demanded equal pay for women, an end to child labor and convict labor and cooperative employer-employee ownership.
Laissez-faire "hands-off"/the argument that government should never attempt to control business.
Ellis Island was the gateway for millions of immigrants.
Cult of Domesticity was a prevailing value system during the nineteenth century, cultivated by Victorian views on morality and culture, which expected women to live and operate from the household, performing tasks designated for women.