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EXAM 1

Differentiation of the Nervous System

QuestionsAnswers
This NEUROSCIENCE stack covers Differentiation of the Nervous System (blank)
Q: The ventricular zone (also called the ependymal layer or neuroepithelial layer) lies adjacent to _______. A: The lumen of the neural tube.
Q: These cells proliferate to produce neuroblasts. A: Neuroepithelial cells.
Q: Neuroblasts migrate peripherally to form _______. A: The mantle layer or zone.
Q: OK, we know the mantle a layer is made up of neuroblasts… so what do these become. A: Neuroblasts are the precursor of gray matter.
Q: In the spinal cord and brain stem where would you find the mantle layer? A: In the spinal cord and brain stem the mantle layer immediately overlies the ventricular zone.
Q: What establishes the marginal layer? A: Growing neuronal fibers which later become white matter.
Q: Where is the marginal zone in relationship to the mantle zone? A: The marginal zone is peripheral to the mantle zone in location.
Q: White matter is made up of _______, while gray matter is mostly _______. A: Nerve fibers (axons), cellular.
Q: Are basal plates ventral or dorsal? A: Ventral.
Q: Are basal plates motor or sensory? A: Motor.
Q: Are alar plates ventral or dorsal? A: Dorsal.
Q: Are alar plates motor or sensory? A: Sensory.
Q: What separates basal plates from alar plates? A: The sulcus limitans.
Q: This structure contains the centers to regulate respiration, heartbeat, and reflex movements. A: The medulla oblongata.
Q: The medulla oblongata is associated with which cranial nerves. A: CN’s VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII.
Q: This relay center between the spinal cord and higher centers contains CN nuclei. A: The medulla oblongata.
Q: What gives rise to the inferior olivary nuclear complex? A: Alar plates.
Q: The alar plates of this structure give rise to rhombic lips which fuse to form the cerebellum. A: The pons.
Q: True or false? The pons has massive gray matter tracts from the marginal layer. A: False! To make this a true statement you would have to substitute white matter for gray matter.
Q: The alar plates give rise to the inferior olivary nuclear complex in the medulla oblongata. What do they give rise to in the pons? A: The pontine nuclei.
Q: The pons is associated with which cranial nerves? A: CN’s V, VI, VII, and part of VIII.
Q: Cerebral peduncles are closely associated with which structure? A: The midbrain.
Q: Alar plates give rise to the superior and inferior colliculi. These make up the tectum, also known as _______. A: The corpora quadrigemina.
Q: Where do the red nuclei and substantia nigra arise from? A: Basal plates.
Q: The midbrain is associated with which cranial nerve? A: CN’s III & IV.
Q: Since cells that make up the substantia nigra contain dopamine & melanin, which disease would start here? A: Parkinson’s.
Q: Brain stem CN nuclei are organized into 7 columns: What are they? (think systemic anatomy) A: GSE, SVE, GVE, GVA, GSA, SVA, and SSA.
Q: Name the parts of the basal nuclei. A: The basal nuclei are made up of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus. [The lenticular nucleus is made up of the putamen & globus pallidus.]
Q: The lenticular nucleus can be further broken down into the _______ and _______. A: The putamen & globus pallidus.
Q: Give another name for the lenticular nucleus. A: The lentiform nucleus.
Q: Where would you find the corpus striatum? A: On the floor of the telencephalon.
Q: How many basal plates are found in the diencephalon? A: None! There aren’t any in the telencephalon either.
Q: I say diencephalon, you think… A: Thalamus (or thalamic structures).
Q: The pineal gland is also known as the _______. A: The epithalamus which is a dorsal swelling of the diencephalon.
Q: The dorsal part of the diencephalon is the ______. A: Thalamus.
Q: The ventral part of the diencephalon is the _______. A: Hypothalamus.
Q: This structure is a ventral outpouching of the diencephalon. A: The infundibulum.
Q: Human eyes are actually outpocketings of the _______. A: Diencephalon.
Q: What is the derivation of the cranial nerve nuclei? A: Motor nuclei arise from brain stem basal plates, sensory relay nuclei arise from brain stem alar plates.
Created by: PCC Neuroscience