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19th and 20th exam 1

Beethoven; Schubert; Rossini; Weber – Classical genres fade 1790-1830: overlaps with Classic Era
– Pianists: Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann – Berlioz, Meyerbeer, Bellini • 1830-1850: heart of Romanticism
– Wagner, Verdi, Puccini – Classic Revival: Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky 1850-1890
: Mahler, R. Strauss, Debussy 1890-1910:
Gesamtkunstwerk Total Art Work
Leitmotiv musical motives in drama
Ewigemelodie endless melody, seamless flow
Orchestration develops low brass sound, tuba
Harmony pushes functional tonality to limits; points the direction for the next generation
Richard Wagner Built great opera house: Bayreuth in 1876 (next slide) – Wrote extended essays: Opera and Drama 1852 – Wrote own librettos – Major influence on opera and music in general – Revolutionary thinker: stature of Marx, Darwin
Wagner Major Works Rienzi 1835, grand opera, first success • Romantic operas – Flying Dutchman 1841 – Tannhäuser 1845 – Lohengrin 1848 • Music Dramas – Tristan und Isolde 1859 – Ring Cycle 1854-74 – Parsifal 1882
Tristan und Isolde • One of great achievements in music history • Culmination of Wagner’s philosophies – Total Art Work – Endless melody – Leitmotifs – Prominent orchestra • Most influential: harmony – Avoids resolution nearly 4 hours
Four operas lasting over 16 hours – Das Rheingold – Die Walküre – Siegfried – Götterdammerung • Huge orchestra leitmotifs Ring Cycle
Lords of the Ring and Others Gods – Wotan: King of Gods, has Valhalla built – Fricka: Wife of Wotan – Freia: Goddess of eternal youth • Humans: Siegmund, Sieglinde, Siegfried • Others – Giants: Fasolt and Fafner – Nibilungs: Alberecht and Mime – Erde: mother earth Valküre: B
La Traviata NAWM 142 dumasbook realism • Sempre libre: 2part Italian aria, cantabile and cabaletta Finale also follows Rossini structure Opening: recitative with orchestra Tempo d’attaco: crescendo, exchange Cantabile: AABB Tempo di mezzo: mood changes Cabalett
Verdi 1813-1901 • Unlike Wagner, beloved for music and politics – Verdi melody became hymn of liberation – Viva V.E.R.D.I. Vittorio Emmanuele, Re D’Italia – Elected to first Italian parliament
Verismo Italian operatic movement at end of century – Literally: “truthism” or “realism” – Reflects most sordid aspects of
• Early: Nabucco 1842 • Middle period – Rigoletto 1851 – Il Trovatore 1853 – La Traviata 1853 • Late period – Aida 1871 - grand opera – Otello 1887 - Italian serious opera – Falstaff 1893 - buffa Major Verdi Operas
Puccini 1858-1924 Assimilates some verismo qualities – Plots often deal with death, but not nec. murder – Intense melodic line – High tension sustained for extended lengths • Wagnerian influences – Large role for orchestra; often doubles voice – Few breaks in music
• Manon Lescaut 1893: first success • La Boheme 1896 • Tosca 1900 • Madama Butterfly 1904 Puccini major works
Madama Butterfly • Exotic – Japanese setting; reflected in music – Inclusion of American character
Carmen • Exotic setting in Spain • Strong Spanish character in music • Carmen seduces soldier Don Jose – Deserts army; joins smugglers – He is dumped for a toreador – He kills her at the end of the opera • Provoked moral outrage
France Grand Opera beings to fade – Merges with Italian opera – Aida (1871) Verdi • Grand Opera in 5 Acts • Grand spectacle; in Italian • Ballet – Popular as part of Grand Opera and independent – Delibes • Coppélia (1870) • Sylvia (1876)
Seguidilla NAWM 144 • Seguidilla is fast Spanish song in triple meter • Refrain frames the song • Accompaniment imitates guitar • Melody with grace notes and melismas • Harmony suggests phrygian mode
Lyric Opera – Like Opera comique, main appeal is melody – Subject usually romantic drama or fantasy – Between Grand Opera and comique in scale – Used sung recitative • Important works – Faust, Gounod: most popular opera of time – Carmen, Bizet
Opéra bouffe Emerged in 1850s • Characteristics – Emphasized witty, satirical style – Satirized French society • Jacques Offenbach founder – Orpheus in the Underworld 1858 has can-can for the gods – Music influenced Vienna, England, US
Other French Music Entertainment • Cabarets – Nightclubs offer variety of entertainment: Chat noir – Promoted innovation • Café-concerts: food and entertainment • Music Halls – Offered revues: various acts, often with unifying theme – Folies-Bergère and Moulin Rouge leaders
US Music Theater cities • Minstrel shows continued, now with some all-black troupes • Operettas – Imported: Gilbert and Sullivan popular – New: Sousa El Capitan • Variety shows
Operetta Modeled after opéra bouffe – Light arias, spoken dialogue – Could be both funny (sarcastic) and romantic • Die Fledermaus (1874) J. Strauss, Vienna • In England, Gilbert and Sullivan – HMS Pinafore 1848 – Pirates of Penzance 1879 – Mikado 1885
When the foreman bares his steel NAWM 146 Police with dotted rhythms; play as if boys – Singing mocks serious opera
Created by: emiallen
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