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|Incorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity.
|Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country.
|Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority.
|The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries.
|There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border.
|Conflicts over the location, size, and extent of borders between nations.
|Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically.
|The process of creating boundaries.
|Many boundaries are natural boundaries, formed by rivers, mountains, etc. There are also political boundaries. These are often formed through war and compromise in treaties and agreements.
|A country lying between two more powerful countries that are hostile to each other. An example is Mongolia, which serves as a buffer between Russia and China.
|Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.
|Religious, political, economic, conflict, etc. that causes disunity in a state.
|An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state.
|A region controlled by a city and that has sovereignty. They were more common in the middle ages and Renaissance in Europe.
|The attempt by a country to establish settlements and impose political and economic control and principles. It was a big thing in the 17th through 20th century for countries in Europe to take areas around the world and make them into colonies.
|association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement. It deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency.
|Conference of Berlin:
|Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country’s colonies.
|Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
|Decolonization is the movement of American/European colonies gaining independence. Some were peaceful struggles while others became violent.
|Devolution is the both the decentralization of a government from a unitary to a federal system or a fracturing of a government like Balkanization.
|Domino theory is the idea that if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect.
|Exclusive Economic Zone:
|sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. The country that controls the EEZ has rights to the fishing, whaling, etc., as well as the raw material resources.
|Electoral regions are the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions.
|country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or lying within the boundaries of another country (Lesotho). An exclave is a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory
|An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes.
|The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 27 democratic member states of Europe. The EU's activities cover most areas of public policy, from economic policy to foreign affairs, defense, agriculture and trade.
|Federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together with a governing representative head. Federalism is the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national & state governments.
|A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state. An example would be Brasília.
|A frontier is a zone where no state exercises complete political control. It is usually uninhabited or sparsely inhabited. It separates countries where a boundary cannot be found. A current example can be found between Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
|the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. It examines the political and strategic significance of geography, where geography is defined in terms of the location, size, and resources of places.