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8thGr-USHist-Top100

8th Grade US History: Top 100 Hits

QuestionAnswer
Jamestown the permanent English settlement founded in 1607.
Declaration of Independence signed on July 4, 1776
Constitution of the United States written in 1787
Louisiana Territory purchased by President Thomas Jefferson from France in 1803
Civil War fought from 1861-1865
Lexington the first shots of the American Revolution were fired here in April 1775.
Bunker Hill site of the first official battle of the American Revolution
Battle of Saratoga turning point of the American Revolution
Yorktown, Virginia location of American victory which signaled the end of the American Revolution.
Fort Sumter, South Carolina first shots of the Civil War were fired here.
Battle of Gettysburg turning point in the Civil War for the North because Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invaded the North again.
Vicksburg, Mississippi The capture of this location by the North in 1863 effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave the North control of the Mississippi River.
Appomattox Court House small town in Virginia where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War.
Mercantillism an economic theory that a country's strength is measured by the amount of gold it has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
abolitionist person who wanted to end slavery in the United States
tariff tax on goods brought into a country
protective tariff a tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry
sectionalism strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country
Manifest Destiny belief that the United States should own all fo the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Gold in California is one reason).
Temperance Movement campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol
Representative Government system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them (Democracy-colonists wanted this)
Republic a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them
Virginia House of Burgesses first representative assembly in the new world
Three Branches of Government legislative branch, judicial branch, and the executive branch
Checks and Balances system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches
Free Enterprise freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation
Federalism sharing of power between the states and the national government
Separation of Powers system in which each branch of government has its own job and powers
Popular Sovereignty practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
amend to change. Requires 2/3 both houses, 3/4 states.
unalienable rights rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are some of those thoughts.
Tyranny cruel and unjust government (example: King George III)
Democracy form of government that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power
Ratify to approve by vote
Judicial Review the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not.
Civil Disobedience the refusal to obey a government law as a means of passive resistance because of one's moral conviction or belief.
Federalists supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong national government
Anti-Federalists people opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power to be given to the state governments than to the national government
Nullification the idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal.
Primary Sources the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, speeches, letters by people involved in the event, and photographs.
Secondary Sources the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources.
Republicism an attitude toward society in the late 1700s based on the belief that the good virtue and morality of the people was essitial to sustain the republican form of government.
Industrial Revolution era in which a change from household industries to factory production using powered machinery took place.
Embargo banning of all trade with a country
Boycott refuse to buy certain goods, a common protest method used before the American Revolution
Magna Carta signed in 1215, and was the first document that limited the power of the ruler
English Bill of Rights protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights
Declaration of Independence document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independent from England
Articles of Confederation the first American constitution. Very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions
Constitution of the United States sets out the laws and principles of the government of the United States
George Washington's Farewell Address advised the United States to stay "neutral in its relations with other nations" and to avoid "entangling alliances."
Monroe Doctrine foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating that 1) The US would not interfere in European affairs, 2) that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European nations
Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War and effectively kicked the French out of North American
Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation.
Northwest Ordinance policy of establishing the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the US
Mayflower Compact agreement signed by the Pilgrims in Plymouth to console each other about laws for the colony and a promise to work together to make it succeed.
Proclamation of 1763 issued by King George and prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Federalist Papers a series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton, defending the Constitution and the principles on which the government of the US was founded.
Common Sense a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince the colonists that it was time to become independent from Britain.
Bill of Rights first ten amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties.
Gettysburg Address short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals ("Four score and seven years ago...").
Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham Lincoln on Jan 1, 1863, setting all slaves in the Confederate states free.
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address stated that, "no state...can lawfully get out of the Union" but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address meant to help heal and restore the country after four years of Civil War
Great Compromise created two houses of Congress. One based on population (VA), the other gave equal representation to each state (NJ).
Three-Fifths Compromise an agreement made during the Constitutional Convention stating that three fifths fo the slaves in each state will be counted as part of the state's population when determining representation for the House of Representatives.
Declaration of Sentiments statement written by woman's rights supporters that was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. It spoke about the complaints they had about the social injustice of women.