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GA Exam #2 NWHSU

Gross Anatomy Exam #2 NWHSU

QuestionAnswer
Muscle that is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve? Gluteus Maximus
What muscle is immediately superior to the sciatic nerve? Piriformis
Action of the Gluteus Minimus? Adduction and Medial Rotation of the hip
What Muscles insert on the iliotibial tract? The Gluteus maximus and the tensor of fasciae latae
Originates on the posterior fibula ONLY and its tendon passes behind the medial malleolus? Flexor Hallicus Longus
Deepest muscle at the posterior knee? Popliteus
Action of semitenonosus across the knee joint? Flexion of the knee and medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
Muscle which originates on the ischial tuberosity and insertes on the anterior proximal tibial shaft? Semitendinosus
Hamstring inserting on posterior medal tibial condyle? Semimembranosus
List the individual names and actions of the muscles collectively known as the triceps surae? Gastrocnemius (knee flexion and plantaflexion of ankle) and Soleus (plantar flexion of ankle) BOTH do lift heel when running or jumping
Abdominal muscle that rotates the trunk to the same side? Internal Oblique
List 4 actions of Sartorius muscle? 1) Abduction of Hip 2) Flexion of femur 3) Lateral rotation of hip 4) Flexion of knee
Muscle which lies immediately deep to adductor longus? Adductor Brevis
Action of gracilis across the HIP joint? Adduction on hip
Orgin of the rectus femoris muscle? Anterior inferior Iliac Spine and Upper rim of Acetabulum
Innervation of adductor magnus muscle? (Anterior head of) Obturator and Posterior head of) Sciatic
Action of Pectineus? Flexion of Femur Adduction of femur Medial rotation of femur
Insertion of peroneus (Fibularis) longus? Base of 1st metatarsal on plantar surface and medial cuneform tarsal bone on plantar surface
Origin of extensor digitorum brevis? Anterior Calcaneous
Action of peroneus (fibularis) tertius? Dorsaflexion of foot, eversion of foot
Innervation of Extensor Hallicus Longus? Deep Fibular Nerve
Specifically, what forms the anterior wall of the inguinal canal? Aponerosis of external oblique muscle
Specifically, what forms the important conjoined tendon? Intern oblique Muscle and transverse abdominis muscle
Portion of the spermatic cord derived from the internal oblique? Cremaster muscle and its fascia
The femoral nerve carries fibers from these specific spinal cord segments? L2, L3, L4
Apart from muscle paralysis, injury to this specific nerve would present anesthesia of the skin in the small area (web) between the 1st and 2nd toes ONLY? Deep Fibular Nerve
The tibial nerve passes immediately deep to this muscle during most of its course in the leg? Soleus
The Sciatic Nerve DIRECTLY innervates what muscle(s)? Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Adductor Magnus (posterior head), Biceps femoris,
The tibial nerve terminates as the? Medial Plantar Nerve and Lateral Plantar Nerve
What arises from the arcuate artery? The Dorsal Metatarsal
In Detail, how does the great saphenous vein become a tributary to the deep veins? (Include vein it drains into and how it gains access to it)? It arises from dorsal digitals, dorsal metatarsal and dorsal venous arch and travels up the medial lg to the saphenous hiatus (which is a gap in the fasciae latae). It then is a tributary to the femoral nerve.
Artery of which medial femoral circumflex is a direct branch? Profunda femoris
Artery which runs deep with the deep peroneal nerve? Anterior tibial artery
Smallest fiber-like unit of muscle that is visable to the human eye? Fasicles
Considering that the muscle volume remains constant, what can one say when comparing the RANGE and STREGTH of contraction of an unattached (free) muscle? They have an inverse relationship. RANGE depends on LENGTH of fascicles. STRENGTH depends on the cross sectional area of the fascicles.
Discuss what is meant by a functional reversal of origin and insertion? Origin refers to the FIXED part of muscle. Insertion refers to the movable part of muscle. A functional reversal is when the origin becomes movable and the insertion is the immovable part of muscle. an example of this is a sit up.
Give the functional classification and NAME a proprioceptor? GSA -- MUSCLE SPINDLES
Classify efferents to the muscle of facial expression and mastication. why are they classified as such? SVE -- they come from the brachial arches in an embryo
List the special sensations? Vision, hearing + equilibrium, Taste (gustation), smell (olfcation)
SPECIFIC components innervated by the autonomic nervous system? Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle, glands
Name the muscle that form the 3rd layer of the plantar foot? Flexor Hallucis Brevis, Adductor Hallucis, Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
Name the Medial rotators of the Hip? Gluteus medius, Gluteus Minimus, Tensor of fasciae Latae, Pectineus, Adductor Magnus (anterior head)
Name the two important ligaments with attachments to the Ischium and Sacrum? Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous Ligaments
Name the ligaments that run from the tibia to the lateral malleolus? Anterior tibiofibular ligament and Posterior tibiofibular ligament
Flexors of the FEMUR? Adductor magnus (anterior head), Adductor Longus, Adductor brevis, Pectineus, Rectus Femoris, Tensor of Fasciae Latae, Sartorius, Psoas Major and Illiacus
Extensors of Femur? Gluteus Maximus, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps Femoris, Adductor Magnus (Posterior Head)
Adductors of the Femur? Adductor Magnus, Adductor Longus, Adductor Brevis, Pectineus, Gracilis
Abductors of the Femur? Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus, Tensor of Fasicae Latae, Sartorius
Lateral Rotators of the Femur? Gluteus Maximus, Piriformis, Gemellus Superior, Obtorator Internus, Gemellus Inferior, Obtorator Externus, Quadratus Femoris, Sartorius, Adductor Magnus (posterior head)
Medial Rotators of the Femur? Adductor magnus (anterior head), Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus, Tensor of Fasicae Latae, Pectineus
Flexors of the Knee? Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Sartorius, Gracillis, Plantaris, Popliteus.
Extensor of the knee? Vastus Lateralus, Vastus Medialus, Vastus Intermedialis, Rectus Femoris, Tensor of Fasciae Latae
Medial Rotators of the knee -rotates TIBIA when the Knee is flexed? Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Popliteus, Gracilis, Sartorius
Lateral Rotators of the knee - rotates FEMUR when knee is extended? Popliteus
Lateral Rotators of the knee - Rotates TIBIA when knee is Flexed? Biceps Femoris
Dorsiflexors of the angle? Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorum longus, Fibularis tertius, Extensor Hallucis longus
Plantarflexors of that Ankle? Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Fibularis Longus, Fibularis Brevis, Tibularis Posterior, Flexor Hallucis Longus, Flexor Digitorum longus
Invertors of the foot? Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior
Evertors of the Foot? Fibularis Tertius, Fibulari Longus, Fibularis Brevis
Muscle which originates on the ischial tuberosity and inserts on the anterior proximal tibial shaft? Semitendinosus
Action of semitendinosus across the knee joint? Flexion an medial rotation
Hamstring inserting on posterior medial tibial condyle? Semimembranosus
Origin of Gastrocnemius? Medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur
Originates on the posterior fibula ONLY and its tendon passes behind the medial malleolus? Flexor Hallicus Longus
FUNCTION of the popliteus muscles? Unlocks the knee
Invertor of the foot innervated by the tibial N? Posterior Tibialis
Action of the rectus femoris muscle? Flexion of the hip and extension of the knee
Muscle which lies immediately deep to the adductor longus muscle, it inserts on only a single bony landmark? Adductor Brevis
Insertion of the adductor magnus? anterior head - adductor tubercle of femur. Posterior head - linea aspera
origin of the psoas major muscle? t12 - L5 vertebral bodies, intervertebral disc, and L1-L5 TP's
Action of Pectinius? Adduction of femur, Medial rotation of femur, flexion of femur
Origin of the Sartorius muscle? Anterior superior iliac spine
insertion of the adductor brevis muscle? Linea aspera
Muscles which insert on the iliotibial tract? Gluteus maximus and tensor of fasciae latae
Lateral rotator of the hip supplied by the obtorator nerve? Obtorator Externus
Muscle which originates on the proximal ischial tuberosity and inserts on the medial greater trochanter? Inferior gemellus
Muscle innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve? Gluteus Maximus
Muscle which originates from the anterior distal fibula (wit extensor digitorum longus) and inserts into the base of the 5th metatarsal? Peroneus tertius
Action of the fibularis/peroneus longus? Eversion and plantar flexion of the ankle
Nerve of tibialis anterior? Deep Peroneal Nerve
insertion of fibularis/peroneus brevis? Base of 5th metatarsal
abdominal muscle that rotates the trink to the opposite side? External oblique
Specifically, what forms the posterior wall of the inguinal cannal? Transversalis Fascia
Name the component from which the cremaster muscle is formed? Internal Oblique muscle
Differentiate between the course of a direct and indirect inguinal hernia? Be detailed and complete!!! indirection hernia penetrates the Deep inguinal canal. Direct hernias go straight down and around the conjoined tendon and eventually pus through the superficial inguinal canal. they never go through the deep inguinal canal.
Nerve that traverses the adductor canal to provide cutaneous innervation to the medial side of the leg, angle, and the foot to the great toe? Saphaneus
The Tibial nerve contains fibers from these specific spinal cord segments? L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
Point at which the common peroneal/fibular nerve is particularly vulnerable to injury? Neck of fibula
Specific nerve from which the sural nerve arises? Tibial Nerve
The ONLY muscular clinical sign a paient shows is involuntary inversion of the foot. this would indicate injury to the _________________ nerve? Superficial peroneal
The Peroneal/fibular artery is a branch of this artery? Posterior Tibial Artery
Name the vessels which help to form the cruciate anastomosis? inferior gluteal artery, 1st branch of perforating artery, medial femoral circumflex artery, lateral femoral circumflex artery
Origintes from the arcuate artery? Dorsal metatarsal arteries
Name given to the connective tissue covering the smallest unit of a muscle visible to the naked eye? Perimysium
Besides being external to the epimysium and sometimes fused to it, give two other characteristics of the deep fascia? 1) Divides the muscles into functional compartments via the intramuscular septa. 2) surrounds individual muscles and allows them to freely move against each other
Discuss what is meant by functional reversal of origin and insertion? Origin I usually stationary and insertion is the movable segment. a functional reversasl is when the insertion is stationary and origin is moving.
Specific components innervated by the autonomic nervous system? Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Give the function 3 letter classification and NAME a proprioceptor? GSA Gogli tendon apparatus
According to lecture, name the anatomical structures placed in the peripheral nervous system? 12 pairs of cranial nerves. 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Autonomic nerves of the ANS.
Define Irritability? The ability of a cell to receive and respond to a stimulus.
List the basic MOTOR functions of the nervous system? Muscular contraction. Glandular secretion.
Name the intrinsic muscles in the plantar foot that form the 3rd layer? Flexor Digiti minimi brevis, Adductor Hallicus, flex or hallicus brevis.
Name the medial rotators of the knee? Sartorius, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Popliteus, Gracilis
A patient presents a sprained ankle caused by excessive inversion. Give specific ligamentous damage? Anterior Talofibular ligament
A ligament deep to the dorsal sacroiliac ligament, located in the deep groove between the sacrum and ilium? Introsseuous sacroiliac ligament
Name the muscles whos tendons pss behind the medial malleolus. list them from POSTERIOR to ANTERIOR as the pass around the malleolus? Flexor hallicus longus, Flexor digitorum longus, Tibialus Posterior
FUNCTION of the popliteus muscle? Unlocks the knee
Insertion of the biceps femoris? Head of fibularis and lateral condyle of tibia
Muscle which originates on the ischia tuberosity and inserts on the anterior proximal tibial shaft? Semitendinosus
List individual dames and actions of the muscle collectively known as the triceps surae? GASTROCNEMIUS - plantar flexion of ankle and assists flexion of knee. SOLEUS - plantar flexion of ankle.
Muscle which inserts on the iliotibial tract? Gluteus maximus, tensor of fascia latae
Origin of the superior gemellus muscle? Ischial spine
Muscle which origin ates on the proximal ischial tuberosity and inserts on the medial greater trochanter? Inferior gemellus
Innervation of adductor longus? Obtorator nerve
Insertion of the adductor magnus? Anterior head - linea aspera of femur. Posterior head - adductor tubercle.
List the 4 actions of the Sartorius muscle? Abduction, flexion and lateral rotation of femur at the hip, and medial rotation of knee when flexed.
Knee extensor and hip flexor innervated by the femoral nerve? Rectus femoris
Origin of the vastus medialis muscle? Linea aspera of femur and intertrochanteric line
Insertion of the adductor brevis muscle? Linea aspera of the femur and pectineal line.
Insertion of peroneus (fibularis) bevis? Base of 5th metatarsal
InNERVAtion of extensor halluces longus? Deep peroneal nerve
Insertion of peroneus (fibularis) tertus? 5th metatarsal
Give the components which form the medial wall of the inguinal canal? Conjoined tendon and rectus sheath
Define the structure of the deep inguinal ring? Represents a gap in the transversalis fascia
Specifically, what forms the important conjoined tendon? Internal oblique muscle and transversus abdominus muscle
Assume you are constructing a body and want the strongest possible muscular performance across a particular joint. what would you do? Multi-pennate muscle and attach it far away from the joint
Name given to the CONNECTIVE TISSUE covering the smallest unit of muscle visible to the human eye? Perimysium
Considering that muscle volume remains constant, what can on say when comparing the range of contraction of an unattached (free) muscle? They are inversely related
Make a flow chart showing the SIMPLEST SEQUENCE of function of the nervous system? Stimulus ----> Sensory neuron (afferent) ----> Motor Neuron (efferent) ----> Effector Organ
Define Ganglion? Group of neuron cells in the PNS
______________ are SPECIFIC TYPE receptors used, for example, as pain detectors in the skin. They are functionally classified (use letter) as _____. Extroceptors. GSA
Classify (use letter classification) efferents to the muscles of fascial expssion. Why are they classified as such? SVE. Because they come from the brachial arches in an embryo.
Define a tract? A group of neurons fibers in the CNS
Superficial vein which drains the lateral part of the foot and the posterior leg? Small saphenous vein
Specific landmark where popliteal artery BEGINS? adductor hiatus
Beginning with the popliteal artery, make a flow chart showing the course a drop of blood would mainly take to reach the lateral compartment muscle of the leg? Popliteal artery ---> Posterior tibial artery --- > ??
Branch of femoral artery which parallels the inguinal ligament to supply skin in the area of the iliac crest? Superficial circumflex iliac artery
Assuming the Sciatic nerve has been severed, would any cutaneous areas below the knee still have sensation? Yes, the skin of the medial leg, ankle, foot, big toe via femoral nerve ---> branches saphenous nerve
Cutaneous branch of tibial nerve which supplies skin of the posterior calf? Sural nerve
The Common PERONEAL nerve carries fibers from these spinal segments? L4, L5, S1, S2
The Tibial nerve terminates as the __________? Medial and Lateral plantar nerves
Name the muscles that form the 2nd layer of the plantar foot? lumbricals and quadratus plantae
Name the flexors of the knee? Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, plantaris, popliteu, adductor magnus (posterior head), Sartorius, gracilis, gastrocnemius
A patient presents a sprained ankle caused by excessive EVERSION. give specific ligamentous damage? Deltoid ligament
A Patient is flat footed due to flattening o the medial longitudinal arch. This would indicate what specific ligamentous damage? Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
Created by: walkingbyfaith09