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WGU Media

Chapter 14

QuestionAnswer
mass media This term includes all companies, organizations, institutions, and other corporate entities who deliver information on politics and current events to the public at large
Which of the following would be considered the "mass media" in today's society? Television, newspapers, radio, and the Internet
What differentiates new media from other sources? It is interactive
Which group of Americans is most likely to access news on a given day? those aged 65 and over
The oldest media format in the United States is printed newspaper
Newspapers also cover more stories related to public affairs, government, and politics
Overall, the demographic to which newspapers most appeal is older, predominantly white, and more highly educated
people under the age of 35 are much less likely than those 65 years and above to read newspapers
According to a 2008 poll, approximately what percentage of Americans reported that they read a newspaper the day before? 35 percent
The Penny Press allowed citizens to do which of the following? access affordable news
1920 the commercial use of radio revolutionized mass media, delivering music, sporting events, and news to American homes
Through the radio President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the nation through his weekly "fireside chats," using the medium to explain and promote his New Deal proposals for economic recovery and revitalization
television broadcasts first appeared in America in the 1930s
news coverage of the conflict in Vietnam brought horrific images of the reality of war into living rooms across the country
Prior to the 1970s, news was available on only three major television networks: CBS, NBC, and ABC
television coverage differs from print coverage in that TV news stories generally only provide very brief summaries of the information reported in the leading newspapers
When did Americans first encounter dramatic visual images of military conflict? the Vietnam War
Which of the following has the highest percentage of Democrats in its audience? CNN
Media conglomerates have adapted to the new format by creating websites, publishing blogs, hosting RSS feeds, providing podcasts, facilitating digital media sharing, and encouraging audience interactivity
online news This form of media appeals to young people in particular. In 2008, 42 percent of younger adults (ages 18 to 29) reported regularly accessing news online, compared to 27 percent of older adults (ages 50 and above)
The online news audience is also more educated, with the majority of Internet news users possessing at least a college degree
Yahoo, MSN, and CNN top the list of websites Americans say they use most often for news
Comparatively, which of the following groups is more likely to go online for news? younger adults
Which of the following tactics did Barack Obama utilize in his 2008 presidential campaign? targeting younger voters, text messages, the Internet, and gaming platforms
most American media outlets are owned by private enterprises
American media face few government restrictions
publicly owned broadcast sources in these countries are generally free from political interference, they are usually required by law to provide basic levels of public affairs coverage
In the system of commercial ownership in the U.S., media outlets are free to cover whatever they choose.
the anticipated audience appeal of a story—and not its educational value or social and political significance— determines whether the media will cover it
Market-Driven Journalism: a private market that provides ownership of journalistic practices that include advertising revenue, circulation and profit margin; leads to story coverage driven by audience appeal rather than by educational, social, or political value
Soft news/infotainment: combines information with entertainment, this form of media emphasizes stores that are entertaining even if they are lacking seriousness, significance, or timeliness
Which of the following applies to the system of media coverage in the United States? Media outlets may cover whatever they choose
According to the text, what is the primary goal of privately owned media sources? profitability
Near v. Minnesota (1931), the Supreme Court extended this provision to protect media from state censorship as well as national censorship
The broadcast media are subject to greater regulation than the print media, however, because they use publicly owned airwaves
Media outlets are subject to charges of libel if they disseminate information known to be false
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964), the Supreme Court established the actual malice standard for cases involving the charge of libel
Actual Malice Standard: The standard requires public figures who sue press outlets for defamation of character to prove that the new source intended “actual malice”; falsity and reckless disregards for the truth.
New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), the Court permitted the New York Times (against the protests of President Nixon) to publish classified Pentagon Papers concerning U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam
The government agency responsible for regulating radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable communications is the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) As part of its responsibilities, it licenses radio and television broadcast services, oversees wireless communications, enforces legislation concerning communications, and educates the public about telecommunications
Net Neutrality: idea that all consumers should have equal access to legal Internet content, applications and services; equal access to network connectivity and choice of provider
In which of the following countries would we consider the press to be highly regulated? China
What must an individual do in order to prove libel? show that the media heedlessly disregarded the truth
The Society of Professional Journalists prominently displays a "Code of Ethics" on its website
The Society of Professional Journalists founded in 1909
The code elaborates that ethical behavior in the media industry requires that journalists "seek truth and report it," "minimize harm," "act independently," and "be accountable."
Partisan Journalism 1789-1860
Sensationalism and Musckraking 1860-1920
Professional 1920-1972
Watchdog 1973-1991
infotainment 1992-present
Which of the following would be considered the most critical standard of journalistic professionalism? credibility
According to the Society of Professional Journalists, with which of the following behaviors should the news industry be concerned? independent action, accountability, reporting the truth, and thoroughness
Freedom of the press in the United States comes from which of the following? The Virginia Declaration of Rights, the First Amendment, the Founders, and state constitutions
1690 The first American newspaper was published in; Called Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, it did not survive more than a single issue
Boston Newsletter, appearing in 1704, was the first newspaper to be continuously published
The Washington administration and the Federalists enjoyed the support of the Gazette of the United Statesa biweekly publication that printed many contributions by Alexander Hamilton
What was the first newspaper to be continuously published in the United States? the Boston Newsletter
The Federalist Papers reflected which of the following developments? the growing influence of political parties
Yellow Journalism Journalists exaggerated or even fabricated news stories to attract readers
The Progressives utilized the print media in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to expose government corruption and promote political and social reform
This muckraking led to widespread public discontent with the political climate, which lacked transparency, accountability, and professionalism
The Society of Professional Journalists formed in response to which of the following? the practice of muckraking, the Progressive era, sensationalism in the media, and public dissatisfaction with the political climate
Reacting to the monopolistic and sensationalistic character of the newspaper industry, Progressive politicians of the early 20th century heavily criticized the press
Calls for journalistic reform led to which of the following? the establishment of journalism schools
The addition of independent editors to the newspaper industry allowed for more stories based on which of the following? quality
Kalb believes that Woodward and Bernstein's reporting "represents a milestone of American journalism (the reporters that broke the Nixon story)
What ushered in the era of watchdog journalism? coverage of the Watergate break-in
The actions of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led to which of the following? public outrage, the making of All the President's Men, the establishment of investigative units by media outlets, and greater scrutiny of White House activity
How have political candidates reacted to the growing popularity of infotainment? by making appearances on infotainment programs
Which of the following could be considered an advantage of infotainment? It attracts audiences who otherwise wouldn't follow politics
Agenda setting (priming, framing): the process of getting issues on the political agenda, or those issues to which the public and decisions makers are paying attention to and will be debated
media act as gatekeepers, controlling which events we hear about and which we don't
Which of the following play an important role in agenda setting? Governors, the news media, presidents, and mayors
What happened when newspaper coverage of health care reform declined? Fewer people viewed it as the most important issue facing the country
priming Information presented by the media has the power to influence the way individuals judge other issues
Priming can also affect voting decisions
framing By presenting information in a way that impacts interpretation of events, the media influence public opinion
framing using specific language to describe an event
How might the media "frame" the issue of budget cuts? by choosing certain words to refer to the budget cuts
If a reporter intended to frame gay marriage in a positive light, how might she do so? discuss the issue as a matter of civil rights
Persuasion Part of the reason that the press has such a powerful influence on politics is because it can lead individuals to change their attitudes about public policy
Three factors determine the likelihood of persuasion: source characteristics, message characteristics, and audience characteristics
Media outlets use agenda setting to focus public attention and define problems
use priming and framing to shape how people think about politics
The media also attempt to persuade people to change their political opinions
Individuals with more political knowledge are considered to be which of the following? less likely to accept media messages that contradict their ideology
Persuasion works best when _____________________. individuals lack knowledge of the subject
According to the text, which of the following affects the persuasiveness of the message? the credibility of the source
The Federalist Papers served not only to inform readers of the purpose and nature of the newly proposed constitution but also to persuade readers of the value of the new constitution and to promote its ratification
Media outlets are expected to provide citizens with information about government activities so that voters can hold elected officials accountable
The Public Broadcasting System (PBS) is a corporation consisting of hundreds of public television stations that offer programming centered on education
PBS "television's best children's, cultural, educational, history, nature, news, public affairs, and science programming
C-SPAN's "mission is to provide public access to the political process."
What does the public expect from the media during an election season? to provide them with information about government, policy platforms, candidates, and political parties.
An additional purpose of the media is to provide oversight
For Jefferson a free press was the tool of public criticism. It held elected officials accountable, illuminating their activity so the people could decide whether government was acting in the public interest
White House Press Corps, sort through the information released by the government, think critically about the central message, and ask tough questions of White House representatives and congressional leadership
Which of the following might be considered a media watchdog? a member of the White House Press Corps
What did Thomas Jefferson believe about the media? The media should hold the government accountable
Political candidates, political parties, and interest groups can use media outlets for advertising
The most expensive media platform for advertising is television
Paid media refers to advertising purchased by a campaign—whether a political party, candidate, or interest group—to advocate for a cause
When the press covers a story about a candidate, this is considered free media
Free media the candidate does not have to pay for the coverage, but he or she has no control over the content, message, or image conveyed to voters
The Obama campaign utilized which of the following platforms for advertising? search engines, infomercials, social networking sites, and news websites
Which of the following would be considered "free media"? press coverage
Howard Dean the little-known governor of Vermont, became the first presidential candidate to largely use new media resources such as blogging to propel his campaign into the national spotlight and garner a base of political support among young voters
With so many outlets for news, political elites struggle to accurately gauge the importance and relevance of national events
Which of the following is potentially responsible for the "trench-warfare mentality" that characterizes Washington politics? the lax journalistic standards of new media outlets
Gives attention to political rumors and accusations that are left uncovered by mainstream media—often driving wider coverage Advantage
Creates alternative outlets for ideologues (talk radio, websites) and provides more time and opportunity for policy discussion and debate Advantage
Provides sympathetic arenas for struggling politicians or offbeat stories Advantage
Provides more avenues for fact-checking and draws attention to issues of credibility Advantage
Levels the political playing field, with new outlets willing to broadcast relatively anything and available to all regardless of political leaning Advantage
Provides new outlets for campaign finance Advantage
Appeals to young Americans Advantage
Exaggerates the importance of relatively minor political events through round-the-clock coverage Disadvantages
Places new emphasis on politicians' personalities and provides new incentives for personal attack Disadvantages
Leads to polarized and warring political culture through the breakdown of old restraints in both media and politics Disadvantages
Elevates ideologues in the political forum Disadvantages
Allows people to self-select their news, possibly obscuring the most important events of the day Disadvantages
Encourages criticism of "mainstream media" and incessant questioning of accuracy, relevance, purpose, and bias Disadvantages
Leads to political miscalculation of the importance and relevance of events Disadvantages
Exacerbates problems associated with regulating campaign finance Disadvantages
Exacerbates problems associated with regulating campaign finance Disadvantages
Excludes elderly and poor Americans Disadvantages
Created by: amora2