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HIUS 221 -1
|How did environmental conditions lead to the formation of Beringia?
|During the last Ice Age, the earth's climate was colder. Huge glaciers covered West Canada, Illinois, and Ohio. As the temperture changed it melted the ice forming the land bridge connecting Asia and North America a region now submerged under Bering Sea.
|How did the Agricultural Revolution change Native American societies?
|The availabilty of a more reliable stor of food helped liberate nomadic groups from t he insecurities of hunting and gathering. Crops made permanent villages possible along w/hierarchies, food increase and population increase.
|What is Agricultural Revolution?
|The shift to basic crops.
|How did the Indians of the Eastern Woodland Cultures differ from Indians living in other regions?
|The EWC did not do intensive agriculture. difficulties grew in feeding so many.they dispersed leaving each family to live off the land best they could. EWC organized diplomacy, trade, and war around reciproical relations. Europeans thought the democratic.
|How did the Colubian Exchange threaten the existence of native Americans?
|1. The Europeans destroyed the ecological system the Indians depended on. They depended on commerce but coveted items became debt. to pay for that they hunted and reduce animals. Indians were too fond of trade to kill Euros and disease destroyed tribes.
|Ecological Transformation- Death and disease, cereal, sugar,coffee, livestock to Indians while Europeans got corn and potatoes and other crops
|Who were Conquistadores and what were their motives in the new world?
|Men eager for personal glory and matierial gain, uncompromising in religion and loyal to the crown. They carried European culture to the most populous regions of the New World.
|What were the success and failures of the treaty of tordesillas?
|Success- a settlement tha tpleased both dingdoms of Spain and Portugal after they almost went to war over anticipated treasure in the New World. Failure- It failed to discourage future English, Dutch, and French adventurers from trying their luck.
|How did the encomienda system exploit Indian laborers?
|Many Indians were forced to do hard labor in exchange for legal protection and religious guidance. However this made the coloizers more dependent on the king, for it was he who ligitimized their title.
|Why was the Virgin of Guadalupe a significant symbol for Mexicans?
|She was a a symbol of the work of the friars who tried to protect the Native Americans from exploitation. The VOG symolized the blending of Indian and European cultures in the wars for independence fought against Spain 3 years later.
|What were the coureurs de bois looking for while following Canada's river networks?
|They were looking for a fresh source of furs. The Frech influence worried English colonists living along the Atlantic Coast, for the French seemed to be cutting them off from the trans-Appalachian west.
|How did the Protestant Reformation change the relationship between England and Spain?
|The English started to believe their former ally, Spain, to be the greatest threat to English aspirations.
|What was the significance of the failure of The Spanish Armada's invasion of England?
|Since they could not remove Elizabeth from power she continued to dominate English forces.
|How did the join-stock company make possible the launching of a new colony in Virginia?
|It was a organization that people could invest in without fear of bankruptcy. The investor could anticipate recovering the initial amount plus a portion of the profits. These profits made the new colony possible.
|What was the purpose of creating the house of Burgesses in Virginia?
|Sandys wanted private investors to develop their own estates in Virginia. There was little incentive to do so but relaxing Dale's martial law and promising house of burgesses, Sandys thought it made the colony more attractive to wealthy speculators.
|How did the headright system help to establish the colony in Virginia?
|Colonists who paid their own way to America were given a 50 acre lot for which they paid a small annual rent. Adventurers got additional headrights for each servant. This allowed prosperous planters to build huge estates while acquiring dependent laborers
|Why were the most indentured servants unable to reap the benefits of coming to the New World?
|In exchange for transportation to America, they agreed to serve a master for a stated number of years. The length of the contract depended upon their age. the younger the longer they served. The master agreed to proper care/EOC- Tools and clothes
|What purpose did the Mayflower Compact serve when it was signed in 1620?
|Since the pilgrims landed in MA instead of VA the original compact was invalid. To preserve the struggling community from anarchy 41 men signed the MC to "covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politick."
|How did the Protestant Reformation influence the Puritans?
|They accepted the notion that an omnipotent God predestined some people to salvation and condemned others to eternal damnation no matter how good or sinful their lives were. The Puritans examined themselves for grace, for hints that God elected them
|What were the backgrounds of the Puritans participating in the "Great Migration"?