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WGU Civil Rights

Chapter 4

Civil rights protect citizens from discrimination by the government and other citizens
Civil Rights are generally considered positive liberties because they are associated with actions that government must take to ensure that all citizens are able to participate fully in society
Civil Rights rooted in the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment,
Civil liberties generally considered negative liberties because they are associated with the absence of government interference or coercion
ratification of the 14th Amendment 1868
civil rights involves two forms of equality equality of opportunity and equality of outcome
Equality of opportunity refers to the idea that every individual must have the same chance to succeed in life
Equality of outcome is the idea that government policies must be designed to ensure not only that all members of society have the same chance of succeeding, but that all members of society actually succeed
affirmative action when an employer encourages minorities to apply for a certain position, and then selects a candidate based on race, gender, disability, or another category unrelated to ability. Usually done with the purpose of diversifying the workforce
For which of the following do civil rights require equal protection? gender, age, national origin, and race (as well as color, disability, and religion)
At which point did the concept of equality arise in U.S. political debate? ratification of the 14th Amendment
The equal protection clause prohibits which type of discrimination? unreasonable discrimination
Affirmative action represents an example of which of the following? guaranteeing equality of outcome
Whom did the Framers include in their conception of civil rights? white males
American Anti-Slavery Society became the primary organization opposed to the practice of slavery
anti-slavery Republican Party 1854
Dred Scott v. Sanford slave wanting to be freed after owner had died
Dred Scott v. Sanford 1854
Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri and Maine being added to the union, one being a free state and the other being a slave state
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution coined the Civil War Amendments or the Reconstruction Amendments
13th Amendment banned all forms of "slavery" and "involuntary servitude."
14th Amendment granted the full rights of national and state citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States." It also guaranteed citizens due process and equal protection under the law
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 freeing all slaves in active rebellion against the states
15th Amendment extended the right to vote to African Americans
Reconstruction when the South would rebuild its political, economic, and social institutions under the watchful eye of occupying Union forces
The period of Northern occupation lasted from 1865 to 1877. During this time, the Radical Republicans in Congress passed several legislative reforms aimed at guaranteeing the rights of Freedmen, including voting and holding political office
Jim Crow laws instituted legal segregation in schools, transportation, facilities, restaurants, and other public places
Civil Rights Cases of 1883 that while the 14th Amendment guaranteed "equal protection" to all citizens regardless of race, Congress could only regulate state acts of discrimination
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 rendered unconstitutional, and the national government lacked the authority to regulate private acts of discrimination
Plessy v. Ferguson colored man asked to move to a different train for the colored; ruled "separate but equal"
Which state had failed to ban the slave trade by the deadline specified in the Constitution? South Carolina
Which of the following represents an accurate statement of what occurred in 1808? slave population numbered over one million
What was the significance of the Missouri Compromise? it granted freedom to any slave whose master established residence in a free territory
What was the immediate effect of Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency? South Carolina's secession from the Union
The ruling in which case established the doctrine of "separate but equal"? Plessy v. Ferguson
Seneca Falls Convention in New York 1848
Seneca Falls Convention in New York Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the meeting brought together a group of 300 male and female activists for two days to discuss the appropriate remedies for discrimination against women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted a "Declaration of Sentiments," modeled after the Declaration of Independence, to present the inequities in politics and society and to call for reform
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 to push for a constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote
Woman Suffrage Association and National Woman Suffrage Association two groups joined forces to become the National American Woman Suffrage Association (or NAWSA)
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns young suffragists with more radical tactics, formed the Congressional Union (later known as the National Women's Party) and used the organization to stage protests
The American Woman Suffrage Association differed from the National Woman Suffrage Association in which of the following ways? it targeted amendments to state constitutions
Who drafted the 19th Amendment to the Constitution? Susan B. Anthony
What group included Alice Paul and Lucy Burns? suffragists
Which US president reconsidered his position and supported women's suffrage as a war measure? President Woodrow Wilson
In what year did the states ratify the constitutional amendment that granted women the right to vote? 1920
Which American city hosted the first women’s rights convention? Seneca Falls, New York
Which national political party was the first to support suffrage for women? Teddy Roosevelt's Progressive (or Bull Moose) Party
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada sued the University of Missouri Law School because he was denied admission due to his race
Sweatt v. Painter sued the University of Texas Law School after he was denied admission because of his race;University of Texas were separate but not equal
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas concerned a little girl who was forced to walk several miles each day across active; railroad tracks to attend a school for African Americans, despite the fact that she lived less than a mile from an all-white elementary school;"Doll Study,"
The NAACP was founded primarily to do which of the following? combat violence against African Americans
The NAACP primarily targeted inequities in what educational institutions? graduate and professional programs
The "Doll Study" was used as evidence in which of the following cases? Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
In Brown v. Board of Education, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense Fund challenged specific racially discriminatory practices in the following state(s): Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware
Brown focused on racial segregation practiced against African Americans in which of the following places? public schools
Which constitutional amendment did the NAACP lawyers rely on when asserting to the Court that the "separate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional? 14th Amendment
Which U.S. Supreme Court case initially established the constitutionality of the doctrine of "separate but equal"? Plessy v. Ferguson
Which adverse effects on African American children did the Supreme Court cite for evidence of the harm caused by public school segregation? illustrate the harm caused by public school segregation
Brown v. Board II Court found that little to no changes had been made over the course of a year, and ruled that schools desegregate "with all deliberate speed."
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court rule that schools must desegregate "with all deliberate speed"? Brown v. Board II
Who were "The Little Rock Nine"? group of students attempting to attend Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
To whom did Martin Luther King, Jr., direct his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"? white clergymen
In the letter, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. defends nonviolent protests against the segregationist, oppressive policies of Birmingham's municipal government and merchants
According to King, why has he come to Birmingham from his home in Atlanta? highlight and overturn the oppressive political and economic injustices suffered by African Americans in the city
According to King, which of the following is NOT a basic step in a successful nonviolent campaign of civil disobedience? gaining the cooperation of prominent political and business leaders
Which of the following places did King describe as "probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States"? Birmingham AL
Who does King reference when he writes "an unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law"? Saint Thomas Aquinas
In King's letter, he expresses his disappointment with the attitude of which of the following groups? white moderates
What group does King criticize for failing to support his nonviolent strategy of civil disobedience to end racial injustice in Birmingham? leaders of white churches in the South
Which of the following drew national attention to the issue of racial inequality? Television coverage of police brutality
Whom did Martin Luther King, Jr., allege had written a "bad check" to African Americans? Founding Fathers
Civil Rights Act of 1964 This act guaranteed equal treatment in schools, workplaces, and public facilities, banning any form of discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission provide a vehicle for individual employees to file discrimination complaints
Civil Rights Act of 1964 also incorporated provisions that empowered the national government to oversee state efforts at compliance and to bypass state courts in cases of racial discrimination
March of 1965 "Bloody Sunday"
Voting Rights Act of 1965 It targeted restrictions on or qualifications for black voting rights, including literacy tests, poll taxes, and limits to voter registration
Who was involved in the passage of national civil rights legislation? President Kennedy, President Johnson, the U.S. Congress, and Martin Luther King
Which of the following became referred to as "Bloody Sunday"? The police attack on participants in a march from Selma to Montgomery
What is the significance of the national historic site in Little Rock, Arkansas? Little Rock Central High School became an emblem of the political struggle over public school desegregation in the South during the 1950s and 1960s
Which civil rights leader was a prominent advocate of black education who stressed industrial schooling and gradual social adjustment rather than political activism for African Americans? Booker T. Washington
Who advocated racial separatism and a "Back to Africa" colonization program? Marcus Garvey
Which landmark law outlawed racial discrimination in public schools, public places, and employment? Civil Rights Act of 1964
Which landmark law suspended literacy tests and other voter tests and authorized federal supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts? Voting Rights Act of 1965
Which of the following were strategies used to further the goals of the Civil Rights Movement? bus boycotts , sit-ins, freedom rides,protests
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) investigating the treatment of women in society and advising the administration on issues related to employment, education, and the law
The members of the PCSW formed the Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW).The PCSW and the CACSW served as the precursors of the National Organization for Women (NOW), founded in 1966
An amendment to protect the equal rights of women was first suggested by Alice Paul in 1923
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 required equal access to federally funded educational programs and activities; application of its provisions has led to more equitable funding for women's athletics
a new Supreme Court interpretation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 extended its provisions to protect against sexual harassment 1976
Violence Against Women Act of 1994 addressing violence against women, including domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, and dating violence
Which group did President Kennedy task with the investigation of the treatment of women in American society? Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
Protective legislation was concerned with which of the following? which women differed from men, policies that addressed women's biological differences from men, legislation concerned with the exploitation of women, and policies designed to promote women's health
In what year was the Equal Rights Amendment added to the Constitution? Though proposed numerous times and ratified by many states, the Equal Rights Amendment was never fully adopted and added to the Constitution
Executive Order 9066 led to the relocation of 120,000 Japanese (many of them American citizens) to internment camps for the duration of World War II
Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) and Korematsu v. United States (1944) , challenged this action by the national government as a direct violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
United States v. Carolene Products Company (1938), the Court had introduced the idea of "scrutiny" and suggested that different sorts of cases might call for different levels of judicial scrutiny
lowest standard of review is the rational basis test Under this standard, the Court presumes that the government's action is valid
The middle standard of review is heightened or intermediate scrutiny requires that the action advances important governmental interests, and that the means used are substantially related to these government interests
Craig v. Boren 1976;he Supreme Court addressed an Oklahoma law that set minimum age requirements for alcohol purchase based on biological sex;violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment; courts ruled in favor
final and highest standard of review is strict scrutiny When the government discriminates against individuals based on their race, religion, or national origin or infringes on any individual's fundamental freedom, the Court uses the strictest of scrutiny to determine if the action was warranted
Three Prongs of Strict Scrutiny Analysis First, does the case involve a fundamental freedom or suspect classification? Second, does the action serve a compelling government interest? And third, is the action taken by the government narrowly tailored to achieve the compelling interest?
Korematsu v. United States generated which standard of review? "compelling state interest test."
Which of the following standards of review are used to evaluate government action in relation to the equal protection clause? Intermediate scrutiny, rational basis, and strict scrutiny
In which of the following standards of review are the interests of the individual given the most weight? strict scrutiny standard of review
What must the government prove to satisfy the intermediate standard of review? must prove that the policy in question is substantially related to a legitimate government objective
American Indian Movement (AIM) 1968;used a number of radical tactics to bring awareness to the living conditions on reservations and to demand equal treatment under the law
members of AIM seized the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota 71-day standoff with federal marshals ensued. Two AIM members died in the violence, and the incident attracted a great deal of public attention
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund was founded 1968;secure Mexican American rights in the courts
Mendez v. Westminster School District that segregating Mexican and Latin children was unconstitutional
"The Longest Walk." 1978, the American Indian Movement organized a march on Washington, DC
American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 a measure that promised to preserve the religious rights of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians
According to the text, which group has notably taken advantage of media relations in order to further its cause of obtaining full civil rights? homosexual community
The American Indian Movement is noted for its use of which of the following types of tactics? occupation of symbolic properties to raise awareness for its cause
Which of the following have enjoyed legislative success in obtaining at least partial protection of their civil rights? Disabled Americans, American Indians, Mexican Americans, and women
de facto segregation or segregation that has no legal basis but is practiced nonetheless
de jure segregation or segregation grounded in the law
US Commission on Civil Rights 1964; investigates charges of illegal voting
Equality of Opportunity ex. when an employer seeking qualified job candidates explicitly encourages minorities to apply and then selects the most qualified candidate, minority or non-minority, from the pool of all applicants.
Equality of Outcome after multiple drawings, no women had been selected. To ensure that a woman would be selected in the next drawing, put all the women's names in the hat and leave the men's names out before drawing
Quatas are not constitutionally protected
Created by: amora2
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