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Gross Anatamy I

Gross Anatamy I - Exam 2

What is a low pressure, connection between multiple arteries? Anastomosis
Anastomosis produces what? collateral circulation
3 lethal areas for anastomoses brain, heart and kidney
Femoral Triangle consists of what? Femoral nerve, artery, vein and lymphatics
Where is the femoral triangle located? Anteromedial thigh
T/F: Veins have branches False: Veins have tributaries
Connective tissue which surrounds individual muscle cells. It holds muscle cells, capillaries and nerve fibers in place Endomysium
Connective tissue which surrounds and holds groups of muscles together (usually 12 or more cells) Perimysium
What is a group of muscle cells? fascicle/fasciculus
What is the smallest unit of the muscle is visible to the naked eye? fascicles (termed a "muscle fiber" by the gross anatomist)
Outer connective tissue covering of the muscle. Epimysium
What muscle layer holds fascicles in place to form the complete muscle? Epimysium
Epimysium is sometimes called what? Muscle Fascia
External to epimysium, but sometimes fused to it Deep Fascia
This seperates muscles into functional compartments? Intermuscular Septa
What provides intermuscular septa? Deep Fascia
What surrounds individual muscles and seperates them from their neighbors so they can move freely? Deep Fascia
Which layer of muscle is just deep to skin and fat but just superficial to deep fascia? Superficial Fascia
What are 4 ways skeletal muscles attach? 1. To bone via a tendon which merges with the periosteum of the bone. 2. Directly to the periosteum of above via CT 3. To a flat sheet of fibrous CT termed an aponeurosis 4. To another muscle via a raphe.
A flat sheet of fibrous CT Aponeurosis
Line of union between two muscles Raphe
Fixed end of muscle, attaches to part of body which DOES NOT move origin of a muscle
Movable end of muscle, attaches to part of body which DOES move Insertion of a muscle
What term describes how the insertion and origin are opposite? Functional Reversal
How is range of contraction determined of a muscle? By the length of fascicles/fasciculi and their relation to long axis of muscle
_____ fascicles means a _____ range of contraction Longer;Greater
Strength of muscle contraction depends on what? A stronger muscle has what? Total cross sectional area of fascicles; More fascicles
The easiest way to add fascicles without increasing bulk of muscles is to what? Put fascicles at an angle to the line of pull
Parallel fibers Have a greater range of contraction but lesser strength of contraction
Pennate Fibers Have a lesser range of contraction but greater strength of contraction
What enters into the range and strength of the movement produced by a muscle crossing a joint? Leverage
Muscle inserting closer to the joint has what? Greater range of joint movement and lesser leverage
Muscle inserting farther from joint has what? Lesser range of joint movement and greater leverage
Maximal strength(leverage) and maximal ROM are what? Inverse
Range of contraction and strength of contraction of unattached muscle are what? Very Inverse
What are the Two properties of the Nervous System? Irritability and Conductivity
What is a response to a stimulus with the initiation of a nervous impulse? Irritability
What is the transmission of a nervous impulse? Conductivity
Cells involved in the nervous system include what? Neurons and Glial Cells
What are the cells carrying the impulse; structural and functional units of the nervous system? Neurons
What cells are associated with neurons and have supportive function(in CNS)? Glial Cells
Cell boy is also called what? Perikaryon
A group of neuron cell bodies located in the CNS Nucleus
A group of neuron cell bodies located in the PNS Ganglion
What conducts nervous impulse towards the neuron cell body? Dendrite
What usually conducts nervous impulses away from the cell body? Axon
Sensory Neurons do what and are also called what? Carry impulses to the CNS; Afferent
Motor Neurons do what and are also called what? Carry impules away from the CNS; Efferent
Group of neuron fibers in PNS Nerve
Group of neuron fibers in CNS Tract
4 basic sensory functions Change in basic sensations, changes in spatial orientation, changes in body function and changes in internal environment
Special Sensations Vision; Hearing and Equilibrium; Taste; Smell
General Sensations Touch, Temperature, Pain, Pressure and Proprioception
Changes in body function include what? Visceral and musculoskeletal-articular origin
Changes in internal environment include what? Hydration, internal temperature, oxygen and electrolyte levels and blood pressure.
2 types of motor functions muscular contraction and glandular secretion
Structural divisons of the nervous system? CNS and PNS
Functional divisions of the nervous system? VNS(Voluntary)and INS(Involuntary)
CNS consists of what? Brain and Spinal Cord
PNS consists of what? 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves and autonomic nerves of ANS
What is an environmental change? stimulus
A neuron with an adapted region (receptor) for detecting a certain type of stimulus, responds by depolarizing to start the impulse Sensory Neuron
Responds to nervous impulse from another neuron and passes the impulse to the effector Motor Neuron
Cells of muscles or glands which respond to impulse and change the activity of body to the stimulus Effector/Effector organ
Which type of receptors are related to the body wall? Somatic Receptors
What are 3 somatic receptors? Teleceptors, Exteroceptors and Proprioceptors
Teleceptors do what? What is its 3 letter classification? Sense things that are distant; vision and hearing; SSA(Special Somatic Afferent)
Exteroceptors are found where and do what? What is its 3 letter classification? Found in skin and deeper tissues of body wall and used for temperature, touch, pressure and pain; GSA(General Somatic Afferent)
Proprioceptors are found where and do what? Found in skeletal muscles(muscle spindles) and tendons(Golgi tendon apparatus). Detects position and movements of body via stretch in muscles and tendons and stretch or compression in joints; GSA
What are the visceral receptors? Interoceptors and Chemoreceptors
Where are interoceptors and what do they do? What is its 3 letter classification? In viscera and deal with visceral sensations, senses smooth muscle contraction and secretory activity of glands; GVA(General Visceral Afferent)
Where are chemoreceptors and what do they do? What is its 3 letter classification? In nasal(smell) and tongue mucosae(taste); SVA
What are 3 motor fibers? general motor fibers, special motor fibers and visceral motor fibers
Where are general motor fibers found and what is its 3 letter classification? skeletal muscles; GSE(general somatic efferent
Where are special motor fibers found and what is its 3 letter classification? skeletal muscles of the branchial arches; SVE
Where are visceral motor fibers found and what is its 3 letter classification? smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands; GVE
Major nerves of the lower extremities and their segments? Femoral Nerve(L2-L4), Obturator Nerve(L2-L4), Sciatic Nerve(L4-S3), Common Fibular Nerve(L4-S2) and Tibial Nerve(L4-S3)
Where do the nerves of the lower extremities arise from? The lumbar and sacral plexuses
Which nerve passes through the psoas major muscle, then deep to the inguinal ligament? Femoral Nerve
Which nerve innervates the iliacus and the anterior compartment of the thigh muscles? Femoral Nerve
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the thigh? Quadriceps Femoris, Pectineus and Sartorius
Which nerve emerges from the medial border of the psoas major, then passes inferiorly and anteriorly and enters the obturator foramen? Obturator Nerve
Which nerve innervates the medial compartment of the thigh muscles? Obturator Nerve
What muscles make up the medial compartment of the thigh? Adductor muscles, Obturator Externus and Gracilis
Which nerve quickly sprays out into its distributing branches after entering the thigh? Femoral Nerve
Which nerve divides into an anterior branch(anterior to adductor brevis) and a posterior branch(posterior to adductor brevis) in the medial thigh? Obturator Nerve
What nerve is the largest in the body? Sciatic Nerve
Which nerve is just inferior to the piriformis and deep to the gluteus maximus? Sciatic Nerve
Which nerve crosses the posterior surface of the gemelli, tendon of the obturator internus, and quadratus femoris muscles and lies deep to the hamstring muscles? Sciatic Nerve
What are the two divisions of the sciatic nerve? Tibial and Common Fibular(Peroneal)
When does the sciatic nerve end? By dividing into its two divisions
Which nerve innervates the posterior compartment of the thigh muscles? Sciatic Nerve
What consists of the posterior compartment? Hamstring muscles and Adductor Magnus(Posterier Head)
Which muscle is innervated by both the sciatic and obturator nerve? Adductor Magnus
Which muscle or muscles in the anterior thigh is not innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve? Biceps Femoris short head
Which branch of the sciatic nerves is the largest? Tibial Nerve
Which nerve travels through the popliteal fossa and lies posterior to the popliteal artery and vein. Tibial Nerve
Which nerve descends immediately deep to the soleus? Tibial Nerve
What are the branches of the Tibial Nerve? Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerves
Where does the Tibial Nerve divide? Within the Plantar foot
Which nerve innervates the posterior compartment of the lower leg muscles? Tibial Nerve
What are the posterior compartment leg muscles? Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Popliteus, Plantaris, Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus and Flexor Hallucis Longus
Which nerve innervates the plantar skin and intrinsic plantar foot muscles? Medial Plantar and Lateral Plantar Nerves
Which nerve passes through the popliteal fossa just medial to the tendon of biceps femoris? Common Fibular(Peroneal) Nerve
What are the terminal branches of the common fibular(peroneal) nerve? Deep and Superficial Fibular(Peroneal) Nerves
Which nerves passes into the anterior compartment of the leg, deep to the extensor digitorm longus? Deep Fibular(Peroneal) Nerve
Which nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior compartment of the lower leg and extensor digitorum brevis on dorsum of foot ? Deep Fibular(Peroneal) Nerve
What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the lower leg? Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Hallucis Longus, Extensor Digitorum Longus and Fibularis(Peroneus) tertius
Which nerve descends in the lateral compartment of the lower leg? Superficial Fibular(Peroneal) Nerve
Which nerve innervates the lateral compartment of the lower leg? Superficial Fibular(Peroneal) Nerve
What muscles are in the lateral compartment of the lower leg? Fibularis(Peroneus) Longus and Fibularis(Peroneus Brevis
Upper border of the Femoral Triangle Inguinal Lilgament
Lateral border of the Femoral Triangle Medial border of sartorius muscle
Medial border of the Femoral Triangle Medial border of the adductor longus muscle
Anterior wall(roof) of the Femoral Triangle Fasciae Latae
Posterior wall(floor) of the Femoral Triangle iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus and sometimes part of the adductor brevis muscle
The apex lead to the ______ of the Femoral Triangle? adductor canal
Branches of the Femoral Artery Superficial Epigastric Artery, Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery, Superficial External Pudental Artery, Deep External Pudental Artery, Muscular Branches and Profunda Femoris
Branches of the Profunda Femoris Artery Medial Femoral Circumflex, Lateral Femoral Circumflex and Perforating aa.
Branches of the Popliteal Artery Genicular aa.
Branches of the Posterior Tibial Artery Fibular(Peroneal) Artery, Medial Plantar Artery and Lateral Plantar Artery
Branches of the Anterior Tibial Artery Anterior Medial Malleolar and Anterior Lateral Malleolar
Branches of the Dorsalis Pedis Artery Acruate Artery, 1st Dorsal Metatarsal Artery and Deep Plantar Branch
Created by: 1277880004
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