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Hist 2 Exam 1

NWHSU T2

QuestionAnswer
Myocardial Infarct is one consequence of Coronary Artery Disease
What problems result from calcific valve disease of the aortic valve Impairs blood flow from the left Ventricle
What is believed to be the major function of the pericyte Pericytes are phagostic cells that can also be precursors to endothelial cells
What blood vessel has the greatest permeability Discontinuous Sinusiods
What are the major components of the tunica media of the elastic artery Alternating layers of Smooth M. and fenestrated Elastic Laminae
Which blood vessel is important for the maintenance of the normal arterial blood pressure Arterioles
Describe the parietal Pericardium Inner Serious layer with an outer dense fibrous layer
What structural Characteristics of the AV node are responsible for its conduction Smaller cardiac muscle cells, fewer interculated dics, and fewer gap junctions
What is the most common lung disease in the western world Chronic airway obstruction disease
Which specific disease process causing Chronic airway obstruction disease involves the destruction and collapse of the walls of the distal resipratory airways Emphysema
Elastic is found in the respiratory tree from the trachea through the __________. Alveolus
What tissue is responsible for keeping the bronchioles from collapsing The helical arrangement of smooth muscle and elastic
What is the function of the smooth muscle in the respiratory tree Air distrubution
What substance decrease surface tension in the alveoli? Surfactant
what cells secretes surfactant? Type 2 pneumocytes
Diagram and label the blood - air barrier in the respiratory alveolus See diagram pg 21 notes
what products are secreted by the serous cells of the salivary glands IgA, Lactoferrin, amylase **found in reading**
Epithelial metaplasia in the distal esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) is caused by _________. These cells are prone to _________ and may predispose to the development of cancer. 1. Gastric Reflux; 2. Ulceration
Liver failure may include symptoms of confusion, altered consciousness, and hepatic coma which is fatal. Disturbance of which of the liver's major functions leads to this set of signs and symptoms? Failure of detoxification
In Hirshprung's disease the colon lacks _______ making defecation impossible. ganglian cells
What does the Chief cells of the stomach secrete and what causes the secretion? Secrete-> pepsin; stimuli-> Gastrin
What does the Parietal cells of the stomach secrete and what causes the secretion? Secrete-> HCl; stimuli -> Gastrin
What does the Pancreatic acinar cells secrete and what causes the secretion? Secrete-> Digestive enzymes; Stimuli-> pancreozymin
What does the Undifferentiated cells of the small intestine secrete and what causes the secretion? Secrete-> alkaline fluid; Stimuli-> Sceritin
Which cells of the gall bladder respond to cholecystokinin? Smooth Muscle
Consider the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine. Polysaccharides are broken down to disaccharides by __________ and the disaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides by ______________ 1. Pancreatic enzymes; 2. by enzymes of the gylcocalyx of absorptive cells
The internal anal sphincteris formed of __________________ Smooth Muscle
Secretin stimulates _______ in the bile duct and ________ is the pancreatic ducts 1. Alkaline fluid; 2. Alkaline fluid.
Explain how sympathetic stimulation of submucosal duodenal glands may contribute to the development of duodenal ulcers Sympathetic stimulation decrease the release of alkaline mucous from the submcosal glands. the absents of this protective layer leads to ulcers.
Which cells secrete oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone? neurons of the hypothalamus
The hypophysial (Rathke's) pouch gives rise to all components of the _________ Adenohypophysis
(S2011) In general, aneurysm and thrombus formation are consequences of what disease? Atherosclerosis - atheroma
(S2011) Give 2 major consequences of coronary artery disease. Thrombus, angina
(S2011) What cytologic characteristic of the Atrioventricular node are related to it's slow conduction rate? Smaller Cardiac muscle cells, Fewer inturcalated dics, and fewer gap junctions.
(S2011) Describe the structure of the most permeable vessel. Discontinous endothelium with basil lamina
(S2011) Compare a medium size artery with its companion vein. Record all correct. The artery has: a. More collagen, b. More Elastic, c. Less smooth muscle, d. a greater cross sectional area, e. Greater intraluminal pressure B, E
(S2011) Which type of artery controls the flow of blood to regions of the body. Muscular arteries
(S2011) What characteristics of the parietal pericardium make it non-distensible. Dense fibrous CT outer layer
(S2011) What structure connects atrial and ventricular muscle? Cardiac Skeleton
(S2011) What 2 forces are responsible for exhalation at rest.** Surface tension, elastic recoil
(S2011) Diagram and label the blood - air barrier Pg. 21
(S2011) In the respiratory tree, hylain cartilage is found from the treacha through the level of the ___________ Bronchi
(S2011) In the respiratory tree, elastic connective tissue is found from the trachea through the level of the Alveolus
(S2011) What componets of the bronchi is primarily responsible for directing air to a regoin of the lung? Smooth muscle
(S2011) Which chronic obstructive airway disease results in the loss of elastic connective tissue and collapse of the bronchioles? Emphysema
(S2011) Cirrhosis of the liver and portal hypertension are most commonly caused by alcohol toxicity, viral infection, and __________ **** Hepatitis (viral), metabolic abnormalities, bile duct obstruction, drugs, and autoimmune disorders. ***
(S2011) Epithelial metaplasia of the distal esophagus is caused by ______________ gastric reflux
(S2011) Give 2 different effects of pancreozymin. Name the cell and the action. Acinar -> secretes digestive enzymes gallbladder smooth muscle-> contraction causing the ejection of bile
(S2011) Which of the following structures are present in BOTH the small and large intestine? Record all that are correct. a. appendices epiploicea, b. Crypts, c. Goblet cells, d. lymphoid tissue, e. paneth cells, d. villi B, C, D
(S2011) What secretes isotonic alkaline fluid into the ilium? Undifferentiated cells of the ilium,
(S2011) What secretes IgA secretory piece and lactoferrin? Serous cells of the salivary glands **found in reading**
(S2011) What secretes secretin? Endocrine cells of the small intestine
(S2011) What secretes protein cleaving enzymes? Pancreatic acinar cells, Cheif cells of the stomach
(S2011)what secretes HCl acid and intrinsic factor Parietal cells of the stomach
(S2011) What contain bacteriolytic enzymes and secrete defesins. Paneth cells of the small intestine
(S2011)What completes the terminal digestion of most carbohydrates and most proteins. Absorptive cell of the small intestine
(S2011)What secretes bile salts? Hepatocytes
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that causes an increase in the blood calcium?** parathyroid hormone **may not be on this test**
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that low levels in infacy result in mental retardation. Thyroid hormone
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that secreted by neurons of the hypothalamus.** Antidiurestic hormone, Oxytocin
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of milk Prolactin
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that is secreted in response to an increase in blood osmolarity Antidiuretic hormone
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone ** Somstodtatin, Insulin-like growth factor - 1
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that causes contraction of uterine smooth muscle oxytocin
(S2011)Name the hormone(s) that causes an increase in protein stores and a decrease in fat stores growth hormone
(W2011) All components of the _________ develop from the hypopysial (rathke''s pouch). Adenohypophysis
(W2011)Name the hormones that causes contraction of the uterine smooth muscle. Oxytocin
(W2011) Name the hormones secretion stimulated by an increase in blood osomolarity Antidiuretic hormone
(W2011) Name the hormone secreted by neurons of the ypothalamus and target the adenohypophysis Release factor and release inhibiting factor
(W2011)what is the function of the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system. ensures that the concentration of RF and RIF is high enough to stimulate the target cells
(W2011)Describe the structure of the least permeable capillary Contains continuous endothilium with basil lamina with occluding junctions
(W2011)Compare a medium size artery with its companion medium size vein. put all that are correct. The vein has: a. greater intraluminal pressure, b. more smooth muscle, c. a greater cross sectional area, d. less elastic, e. more collagen C, D, E
(W2011) Which vessels act as auxiliary pumps during diastole? Elastic arteries
(W2011) Why is accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity life threatening? The dense fibrous outer CT layer doesn't stretch well. This puts pressure on the heart and it can't fill with blood
(W2011) What structure seprates tje atrial muscle from the ventricular muscle? Cardiac skeleton
(W2011) What cytological characteristics of the purkinji cells are responsible for there rapid conduction rate? Large cells, more gap junctions, more interculated discs, less myofibrils and glycogen
(W2011) What disease begins in the tunica intima of arteries and may cause aneurysms? Atheroma of the arteries
(W2011)What childhood disease may have complications which results in damage to the mitral valve? Rheumatic fever
(W2011) which condition causing chronic obstructive airway disease is characterized by bronchconstriction and excessive mucus production? Asthma
(W2011) what is the normal function of branchial smooth muscle? Air distribution
(W2011) Exhalation at rest is produced by what 2 forces? Surface tension, elastic recoil
(W2011) Surfactant decreases surface tension at the surface of the alveolus. How does this aid respiration? Expands alveoli during inspiration, recoil during expiration and prevents collapse
(W2011) Which population of the olfactory mucosa is capable of producing new receptor cells? Basal Cells
(W2011) Diagram and label the blood - air barrier. pg 21 of notes
(W2011) what cytological characteristics of the parietal cell reflect it major functions?** highly acidophilic due to the large number of mitochondria and have vastly increased plasma membrane forming secretory canaliculi.
(S2010) Atheroma is a disease of the ______ (type of vessel) which begins in the _____ with an artheromatous plaque 1. Artery; 2. intima
(S2010)the major consequences of artheroma are impaired blood flow, thrombus formation and _______ aneurysm
(S2010) Which childhood illness may lead to damaged heart valves? rheumatic fever
(S2010) what is the least permeable capillary? Continuous with occluding junctions
(S2010)Compare a medium size artery with its companion medium size vein. put all that are correct. The vein has: a. greater intraluminal pressure, b. more smooth muscle, c. a greater cross sectional area, d. less elastic, e. more collagen C, D, E
(S2010) Consider the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Why doesn't the parietal pericardium stretch out to accommodate the pressure? the fibrous outer layer
(S2010)Consider the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. why is this a dangerous condition? puts increased pressure on the heart
(S2010) What structure separates the atrial muscle from the ventricular muscle? Cardiac Skeleton
(S2010) Asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis are 3 conditions of _______ disease. Chronic obstructive airway disease
(S2010) Which Chronic obstructive airway diseas is characterized by bronchoconstriction and the prodcution of viscous mucus? Asthma
(S2010) What is the function of the basal cell in the olfactory muscosa? precursor for supporting cell and neurons
(S2010) what forces produce exhalation at rest? Surface tension, elastic recoil
(S2010) what keeps branchioles patent? elastic CT
(S2010) List components of the blood air barrier in the order from the air to the blood Type 1 pneumocyte, basal lamina of epithelium, basal lamina of endothelium, endothelium-continouos
(S2010) What papillae have taste buds?** Circumvillate and Fungiform ** from reading
(S2010) Serous cells of the salivary glands secrete enzymes and ____** IgA, Lactoferrin
(S2010) What layer is destroyed in ulcerative colitis mucosa
(S2010) what are the major signs of ulverative colitis? bloody diarrhea
(S2010) Cirrhosis may result in portal hypertension. why does this happen? This happens becuase of increased resistance of the blood to flow throught the portal vein by excess fibrous tissue, conversion of hepatic stellate cells to myofibroblasts and hepatocyte hypertrophy causing sinusoidal narrowing.
(S2010) Name the cells of the GI mucosa and give the organ in which they are located. Secrete large amounts of Isotonic alkaline fluid. Undifferentiated cells of the small intestine
(S2010)Name the cells of the GI mucosa and give the organ in which they are located. enzymes in it glycocalyx perform the terminal digestion of most proteins. absorptive cells of the small intestine.
(S2010)Name the cells of the GI mucosa and give the organ in which they are located. Secrete pancreozymin. Endocrine cells of the small intestine
(S2010)Name the cells of the GI mucosa and give the organ in which they are located. are highly acidophilic due to the large number of mitochondria and have vastly increased plasma membrane forming secretory canaliculi. Parietal cells of the Stomach
(S2010)Explain how sympathetic stimulation may cause doudenal ulcers? Sympathetic stimulation decrease the release of alkaline mucous from the submcosal glands. the absents of this protective layer leads to ulcers.
(S2010) The majority of digestive enzymes are synthesized and secreted by the _______ cells of the __________ 1. Acinar cells 2. Pancreas
(S2010) What is the source of the blood entering the hepatic sinusoids? Hepatic artery and portal vein
(S2010) Give the stimulus for the secretion of antidiuractic hormone under normal conditions An increase in the blood osmolarity
(S2010) Name the hormones. Contributes to the development of ovarian follicle and its secretion of estrogen. Follicle stimulating hormone
(S2010) Name the hormone that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of milk Prolactin
(S2010) Name the hormone descirbed by its secretion inhibited by thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) ???***
(S2010) Name the cells which secrete releasing factors and there locations Neurons of the hypothalmus
(S2010)which of the following is true of the GH. More then one. A. enhances the utilization of fats for energy, B. Increases protein storage. C. its secretion is inhibited by ghrelin, D. its secretion is stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 A, B
(W2011) in which of the followinf is correct. a. musocs cells of the salivary glands secrete IgA, amylase, and lactoferrin; b. undiff cells of the small intestine secrete isotonic alkaline fluid; c. chief cells of the stomach secrete intrinsic factor; B
(W2011) Explain how sympathetic stimulation may promate the development of duodenal ulcers Sympathetic stimulation decrease the release of alkaline mucous from the submcosal glands. the absents of this protective layer leads to ulcers.
(W2011) Terminal digestion of most carbohydrates and proteins is accomplished by _____________ glycocalyx of the absorptive cells in the small intestine
(W2011) In hirshsprungs disease ________ cells are absent in the rectum. ganglion
(W2011) Name the hormone of the GI tract which stimulates each of followong: secretion of alkaline fluid by the pancreatic and bile ducts. Secretin
(W2011) Name the hormone of the GI tract which stimulates each of followong: Secretion of the digestive enzymes by the pancreatic acinar cells and the contraction of the gallbladder smoother muscle pancreozymin
(W2011) Name the hormone of the GI tract which stimulates each of followong: secretion of pepsinogen and HCl acid. Gastrin
(W2011) Which of the following structures are present int he small intestine but absent in the large instestine? a. Villi, b. crypts, c. Goblet cells, d. paneth cells, e. lymphoid tissue. A, D
(W2011) Which of the falloeing are generally characteristics of the hepatocyte? a. are richin glycogen, b. have abundant rER, c. form bile canliculi with adjacent cells, d. synthesize and secrete most plasma proteins ** A C D ** only question weather A is an answer **
(W2011) Destruction of hepatocytes and loss of their relationships with the sinusoids and with the biliary system characterrized by what disease? Cirrhosis
Created by: missymak19