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GOVT Chapter 3


federalism Two levels of government in the same region share sovereignty
unitary system A centralized governmental system in which local governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central govt.
confederal system A league of independent sovereign states joined together by a very limited central govt.
Most nations in the world today use the __ system of government unitary
City and county governments are "__ of state government." creatures
division of powers Federal and state governments hold different powers
expressed powers Constitutional statutory powers that are expressly provided for by the Const.
implied powers The powers of the federal government that are implied by expressed powers (esp. in Article 1, Section 8)
necessary and proper clause Gives Congress power to carry out fed. responsibilities; also called the elastic clause
inherent powers The powers of national govt. that are so obviously necessary for the nation's survival that they don't need to be expressly granted in the Const. E.g., the powers to make treaties, war, and peace
police powers The powers of a governmental body (of a state) that enable it to create laws to protect the people's welfare.
The _____ often decides the extent of states' police powers Supreme Court
horizontal federalism Relations between states that do not directly involve the federal government
How does DOMA relate to horizontal federalism? If a state is forced to recognize another state's definition of marriage, that state's powers are compromised and the other state's powers take precedence. (Ex: gay couple married in state X move to state Y)
concurrent powers Powers held by both state and national governments (E.g., the power to impose income taxes)
supremacy clause Article VI, Section 2: Const. and federal laws are superior to all conflicting state and local laws
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) The Second Bank of the United States was deemed legitimate as a nec/proper use of power; the supremacy clause was interpreted to mean that no state may tax a part of the national government
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Commerce was defined to mean all business dealings, including steamboat travel. The power to regulate interstate commerce was an exclusive national power
secession the act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance or the federal union
dual federalism This model of government assumes that the state and federal governments are more or less equals, with distinct powers/duties. Both exercise sovereign power.
Until the 1930s' New Deal, when cooperative federalism prevailed, __ was the model that defined U.S. federalism dual federalism
cooperative federalism the theory that federal and state governments should cooperate to solve problems
New Deal (1933) Included many government-spending and public-assistance programs and economic regulations
Created by: The Hamminator