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Chapter 8 Vocabulary

1) Progressivism- Movement that responded to the pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms.
2) Muckraker- Writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or business
3) Social Gospel- Reform movement that emerged in the late nineteenth century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles.
4) Settlement house- Community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor.
5) Direct primary- Election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
6) Initiative- process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot
7) Referendum- Process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature.
8) Recall- Process by which voters can remove elected officials from their office before their terms end.
9) NCL- Group organized in 1899 to investigate the conditions under which goods were made and sold and to promote safe working conditions and a minimum wage.
10) Temperance movement- Movement that aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it.
11) Suffrage- The right to vote.
12) NAWSA- Group founded in 1890 that worked on both the state and national levels to achieve women the right to vote
13) Nineteenth Amendment- Gave women the right to vote
14) Americanization- Belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
15) Niagara Movement- Group of African American thinkers founded in 1905 that pushed for immediate racial reforms, particularly in education and voting practices
16) NAACP- Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans
17) Urban League- Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities
18) Anti-Defamation League- Organization formed in 1913 to defend Jews against physical and verbal attacks and false statements
19) Mutualistas- Organized groups of Mexican-Americans that make loans and provide legal assistance to other members of their community
20) Square Deal- President Theodore Roosevelt's program of reforms to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor
21) Hepburn Act- 1906 law that gave the government the authority to set railroad rates and maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls, and oil pipelines
22) Meat Inspection Act- 1906 law that allowed the federal government to inspect meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants
23) Pure Food and Drug Act- 1906 law that allowed federal inspection of food and medicine and banned the interstate shipment and sale of impure food and the mislabeling of food and drugs.
24) National Reclamation Act- 1902 law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects
25) New Nationalism- President Theodore Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trustbusting power.
26) Progressive Party- Political party that emerged from the Taft-Roosevelt battle that split the Republican Party in 1912.
27) New Freedom- Woodrow Wilson's program to place government controls on corporations in order to benefit small businesses
28) Sixteenth Amendment- 1913 Amendment that gave Congress the authority to levy an income tax
29) Federal Reserve Act- 1913 law that placed national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board, which runs regional banks that hold the reserve funds from commercial banks, sets interest rates, and supervises commercial banks
30) Federal Trade Commission- Government agency established in 1914 to identify monopolistic business practices, false advertising , and dishonest labeling.
31) Clayton Antitrust Act- 1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
Created by: Andrew_Clark