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H&A Chap 1,3,5

What is Anatomy Study of structure and relationships among structures may be microscopic
What is physiology study of function function is related to structure
What is the basic unit of life cells
What is the 4 types of tissue Muscle, Connective, Nerve, Epithelial
What are some examples of organs that compose of 2 or more diffrent tissues? stomach, heart, liver
Define Differentiation Unspecialized cells (stem cells) cells specialized to perform certain function
empithelial membranes composed of...... epithelial layer & connective tissue layer
What does the skin consists of..... superficial, thin epidermis, deep thicker dermis
Where is mucous membrane (mucosa) located? lines cavities OPEN to the outsideDigestive, respiratory, urinary,reproductive stystems
What is the structure of mucous membrane epithelial layer? often columnar or pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells to mucus
Connective tissue mucous membrane connective tissue layer structure Lamina propria often areolar connective tissue binds membrane to underlying tissue
what is the functions of mucous membrane? protection, secretion, absorption
Where is serous (serosa) membrane located? Lines cavities NOT open to outisde and covers organs in the cavity
What is the structure of serous membrane? composed of mesothelium simple squmous epithelial and loose areolar connective tissue
Visceral layer is tight around organ
Parietal layer is loose, lines wall of body cavity
What are the 3P's pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
What is the function of serous membrane? secretes serous fluid to reduce friction between layers of membrane
What is membrane flate sheet of tissue that covers or lines part of the body
What are a fact about synovial membrane not an epithelial membrane
where is synovial membrane located lines joint cavities, make up tendon sheaths, cover bursa
What is the structure of synovial membrane not epithelial, and composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose (fat)
What is the function of synovial membrane secrets synovial fluid to reduce friction in joint
What does stratum basale consist of 1 layer of cuboidal cells (ALOT MITOSIS)
What does stratum spinosum consist of Prickle cells many Desmosomes
What does Stratum granulosum consist of Cells die some cells produce keratin
What does stratum lucidum consist of dead cells and cells are translucent
What does stratum corneum consist of 25-30 layers of dead cells flat filled with keratin
Dense irregular contains bv, lymph vessels, sensory receptors, part of hair follicle, arrector pili muscle
Dermal papillae is bumps on dermis epidermal ridges overlie these (Finger print)
Histology is study of tissue similar cells similar function
What is cell junction cells tightly packed together and are most common in epithelial tissue
What are the 5 types of Junction? tight junction, plaque bearing junction, gap juction,adherens junction,desomosomes, hemidesmosomes
What is tight junction? prevent fluid leaking like ZIPLOCK BAG
Where is tight junction found? epithelial cells near surface body like lining of stomach and intestine
What is plaque bearing junction? dense protein and holds cells together
Adherens junction forms..... belt around entire cell
what is desmosome "Spot Welding" in epidermis lining of small intestine, contains filaments and plaque
Gap Junction..... allow material like protein to pass one cell to another
Where is gap junction found? Cardiac muscle interclated discs
Description of epithelium closely packed cells,arrange single or multiple layers, always have apical surface, NO BV
Function of epithelium protection in areas high friction like esophagus, respiratory tract, anus absorption and found in kidney tuble, small intestine
Simple means one layer
stratified means multiple layers
pseudostratified means looks like more than one layer but isn't
transitional means shape changes depending on fullness of organ
simple squamous epithelium is one layer of thin "scale like cells"
simple squamous epithelium is located cardiovascular and lymphatic system ex.alveoli in lungs, Bc kidney,capillaries and other BV
Simple squamous is part of.... serous membranes
simple squaous function is diffusion, osmosis, filtration
simple cubodial epithelium description is single layer of cube like cells
simple cubodial epithlium function is secretion and absorbtion ex are kidney tubles and glands
simple cubodial epithlium location is kidney tubles and surface of ovary
simple columnar epithelium is one layer of cylindrical cells with microvilli at apical surface and goblet cells
simple columnar epithelium function is secretion and abosorption( small intestine with microvillie)
stratified squamous epithelium is many layers that are flat deeper layers are cuboidal/columnar mitosis in deepest layers (BASAL Layers
Stratified squamous epithelium location is epidermis, sometimes contain keratin mouth, esphagus, anus and vagina not keratinized
Stratified squamous epithelium function is protection found in areas of high friction
Stratified columnar and cuboidal is urethra
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium 1layer looks like multiple
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium location is upper respiratory tract (trachea)
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium functions is protection and secretion goblet cells to mucus have cilia
Transitional epithelium is multiple layers acts like sponge
transitional epithelium location is urinary bladder, parts of ureter and urethra
transitional epithelium function is allows urinary ograns stretch hold amount of fluid without rupturing
glandular epithelium is glands composed of one cell or many cells
Exocrine glands is empty thru duct onto body
exocrine glands located sweat, oil, and ear wax glands etc
endocrine glands is secretions dumped into blood
endocrine glands found in pancreas, thyroid pituitary etc
Connective tissue location found between other tissue types composed of matrix
connective tissue is not tighly packed no free surface very vascular good blood supply except cartilage and tendons
Connective tissue contains fibers, nerve supply
Three types of fibers are collagens, elastic, reticular
Reticular is frame for organs
Fibro blasts is spindle shaped cells form fibers and matrix
plasma cells from white blood cells secrete antibodies
mast cells is near bv inflammation allergic reactions
Areolar connective tissue contains 3fibers
areolar CT is located subcutaneous tissue with adipose (packing material)
areolar ct function is bind skin to underlying tissue
adipose located in subcutaneous, around heart, kidney, and spinal cord
adipose function is to insulation, padding energy storage
Reticular description is cut up volleyball net
reticular function is bind cells together
reticular is located in stroma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes
Dense irregcular ct is collagenous fibers pulled in many directions tightly packed irregularly arranged
dense irregular ct is located in periosteum, perichondrium, and dermis of skin
dense regular ct is collagenous fibers arranged in bundles orgainzed poor supply
dense regular ct is located in tendons, ligaments, aaponeurosis
dense regular ct function is strong attachment pulling tension along axis of fibers (TOUGH MOTHER)
elastic ct is lasagna stretchy and strong
elastic ct can be found in large elastic arteries (aorta), lung tissue, trachea
Cartilage is rubbery matric with fibers
cartilage can be found in matrix surrounded by membrane pericondrium
cartilage function is protection, support, some types are flexible
ligments are connecting bone to bone
tendons are connection bone to muscle
What are the 3 types of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic, fibro
Hyaline cartilage is not very visble matrix looks smooth cells in lacunae most common type flexible
hyaline carilage found in ends of long bones,fetal skelton, nose trachea, and bronchi
elastic cartilage has many short darkly "hairy eyballs
elastic cartilage is found in lung tissue, external ear, epiglttis
Fibro cartilage is large bundles which stain (TOUGHEST)
fibro cartilage located in veretabra intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, menisci in knee
Bone is basic unite bone tissue contains osteocytes in lacunae
Bone is located in spongy bone tissue
Bone function is
Blood is vascular containing white blood cells , red blood cells, and platelets
Erythorocytes has no nucleus when mature carries oxygen
leukocytes has large nucleus fight infection
platelets has fragments of cells
blood function is carry oxygen nutrients, wastes hormones
Defense is phagocytosis, antibody production
sketal muscle is straited multinucleated long fibers voluntary
skeletal muscle fcuntion is motion of body and limbs
skeletal muscle found in most attached to bones
cardic muscle is straiated 1 nucleus branching fibers contain interclated discs
cardic muscle function is pump blood
cardic muscle located in heart wall
smooth muscle are fibers and spindle shaped 1 nucleus no straitions involuntary
smooth muscle found in bv, airway, iris of eyes, walls of hallow organs
nervous tissue is composed of nerons and neuroglia
neuroglia..... suppors cells do NOT conduct impluses
two places i can find cilia trachea, fallopian tube, psuestafied ciliated columnar
Created by: loulou616



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