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EXAM 1

Developement of the Nervous System

QuestionsAnswers
This NEUROSCIENCE stack covers Development of the Nervous System (blank)
Q: What is gastrulation? A: Gastrulation is the formation of the three germ layers during the third week of gestation; ECTODERM, MESODERM, and ENDODERM.
Q: What is neurulation? A: Neurulation is the formation of the neural tube early in the fourth week of gestation.
Q: When does the anterior neuropore close? A: The anterior neuropore closes on day 25 of gestation.
Q: When does the posterior neuropore close? A: The posterior neuropore closes on day 27 of gestation.
Q: There are three primary brain vesicles. Name them and their associated structures. A: The PROSENCEPHALON (forebrain), MESENCEPHALON (midbrain), and RHOMBENCEPHALON (hindbrain).
Q: We talked about three flexures. What are they? A: The cephalic flexure, cervical flexure, and pontine flexure.
Q: The three flexures may be created equally but which one sticks around for the long haul? A: The cephalic flexure remains while the other two drift off into oblivion.
Q: When could you expect to see flexures of the brain appear? A: During the fourth week of gestation.
Q: This flexure can be found at the junction of the hindbrain and the spinal cord. A: The cervical flexure.
Q: This flexure can be found in the midbrain. A: The cephalic (or mesencephalic) flexure.
Q: What event results in the pontine flexure? A: Unequal growth of the brain between the other two flexures. **NOTE** the pontine flexure grows in the opposite direction than the other two flexures.
Q: There are five secondary brain vesicles. Name them and their associated structures. A: The TELENCEPHALON (cerebrum), DIENCEPHALON (thalamic structures), MESENCEPHALON (midbrain), METENCEPHALON (pons), and the MYELENCEPHALON (medulla).
Q: This structure divides into the telencephalon and the diencephalon. A: The Prosencephalon. **REMEMBER: The “pros” score the TD’s.
Q: This structure divides into the metencephalon and the myelencephalon. A: The Rhombencephalon.
Q: This structure divides into the mesencephalon. A: Yep, I was testing you. The mesencephalon comes from itself. It is not the result of a dividing structure.
Q: ALL thalamus structures come from the _______. A: Diencephalon.
Q: The midbrain comes from the _______. A: Mesencephalon.
Q: The pons comes from the _______. A: Metencephalon which comes from the rhombencephalon.
Q: The medulla comes from the _______. A: Myelencephalon which comes from the rhombencephalon.
Q: What structures make up the brain stem? Name them from rostral to caudal. A: The midbrain, pons, and medulla.
Q: The epithalamus has another, more familiar, name. What is it and where is it derived from? A: The pineal gland which is derived from the diencephalon.
Q: The brain has how many ventricles? Name them. A: There are four ventricles: two lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle.
Q: You’re a drop of cerebral spinal fluid and you want to get from one of the lateral ventricles to the fourth ventricle. How do you get there? A: From the lateral ventricle through the INTERVENTRICULAR FORAMINA OF MONRO into the THIRD VENTRICLE, then through the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT OF SYLVIUS into the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Q: The lateral ventricles are associated with the _______. A: Cerebral hemispheres.
Q: The third ventricle is associated with the _______. A: Thalamus.
Q: The cerebral aqueduct is associated with the _______. A: Midbrain.
Q: The fourth ventricle is associated with the _______. A: The upper portion of the fourth ventricle is associated with the pons and the cerebellum while the lower portion is associated with the medulla.
Q: Aside from the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius at its entrance, the fourth ventricle is associated with some other foramina. Name them. A: The foramen of Magendie at the midline and two foramina of Luschka at the lateral aspects.
Q: List six derivatives of neural crest cells. A: Schwann cells, pigment cells (both skin & iris), chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, meninges (pia-arachnoid membrane), skeletal and muscular components of the head, and PNS, cranial & spinal autonomic ganglia & nerves. **These are on page 5.
Created by: PCC Neuroscience