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WGU Federalism

chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
Dual Federalism 1789-1937 Clear distinctions between national and state responsibilities and authority
Cooperative Federalism 1937-1960's a mixing of federal and state responsiblilities
Coercive Federalism 1960's-present federal government mandates and sanctions to achieve uniform national goals
New Federalism 1980's-present delegate authority back to states
Cooperative Federalism During the Roosevelt administration; joint governmental programs; a blend of responsiblities
Coericive Federalism Federal government began passing laws that compelled state governments to comply with Federal Laws; social, enviromental, financial, educational & domestic security
Coercive Federalism used mandates based on the Supremacy Clause in the US Constitution; can be funded or unfunded; requires states to comply; do not always provide money for mandates
Coercive Federalism used preemption federal government takes over enforcement fo the law from the state
Coercive Federalism used grants if states comply with federal laws they receive federal money; states must follow federal laws, paperwork, and requirements
Coercive Federalism used Sanctions the federal government withholds funds for noncompliance
Project Grants are a form of a categorical grant; examples: highway projects, water projects
Formula Grants Form of a categorical grant from the National Government; examples: federal aid to schools, school lunch programs
Block Grants A new federalism feature from the national government; examples: TANF (temporary aid to needy families (welfare) funding
New Federalism Started under President Regan when more power was given to the states; relaxing/waving federal requirements, using block grants to allow more freedom
Devolution one of the two main ways to reduce federal presence (new federalism); federal government turning over federal programs to states and localities; ex TANF
Deregulation one of the two main methods of reducing federal presence during new federalism; reducing/abolishing Federal rules to promote free-market competion; ex: telecommunications
Strength of Federal System provide national unity while preserving local representative government and personal freedom
Strength of Federal System Prevents tyranny through the decentralization of power
Strength of Federal System Permits the laws to match the place
Strength of Federal System Promotes and facilitates division of labor within government
Strength of Federal System Encourages innovation and experimentation in policy development in 50 states and thousands of communities
Strength of Federal System Balances a wide array of interests, limits the possiblilities of tyranny of the majority, and gives voice to minority customs, diversity and individuality
Weaknesses of the Federal System Hinders uniform national policy development and leads to budgetary inefficiency
Weaknesses of the Federal System Limits political power, depends on state compliance, and frustrates effeiciency
Weaknesses of the Federal System Leads to policy inconsistencies
Weaknesses of the Federal System Possibly duplicates government programs and services, and limits oversight and accountability at national level
Weaknesses of the Federal System allows inequities in benefits and services across states and local communities, and leads to policy failure when states and local areas lack the policy capacity to cope with problems
Weaknesses of the Federal System overwhelms citizens with the frequency of elections, the complexity of state and local governments, and the bureaucracy of public service
Weaknesses of the Federal System Leaves the door open for serparatism, secession, local over national pride, and pressure for greater self-governance
Why Federalism? Framers wanted a national government that was more effective than the one under the Articles of Confederation
Why Federalism? to preserve state rights and responsibilities
Why Federalism? to provide a separation of powers; provide a double security; prevent abuses of political power and protect freedom
Key Characteristics of Federalism states are independent yet united
Key Characteristics of Federalism both the states and national government have sovereignty
Sovereignty the legitimate force that government has over citizens
Top level of government in the US National/Central government
National Government power over national issues; ex: national defense, international trade, diplomatic relations, etc.
National Government composed of three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
State Government government under the national level (sub-national); power over local issues; ex: public safety, education, etc.
State Government split into three branches: legislatures, governors, and courts
Federal Government Supremacy Clause
Federal Government Enumerated Clause
Federal Government Necessary and proper clause
Supremacy Clause Article VI; the constitution states that all treaties made under the authority of the law shall be the supreme law of the land
Enumerated Powers Article I, Section 8; a specific list of powers such as national defense, making foreign treaties, interstate commerce, national taxes
Necessary and Proper Clause Article I, Section 8; allows the federal government to stretch its powers
State Government reserved powers
Reserved Powers 10th Amendment; every other power is given to the state government; ex: police, education, elections, political parties, land and zoning, business regulation, state government budget, state taxes (sales tax, property tax, etc.)
Article IV, Section 4 state government must have an elected form of government, in which citizens will vote for representatives
Article I, Section 10 no state shall,without consent of Congress,...enter into any Agreement or Compact with another state
Full Faith and Credit Article IV, Section 1, shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Article IV Section 2 each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens; a person charged for treason or felony of a crime shall not flee from the crime; will be delivered to the state from the jurisdiction of the crime
Interstate Commerce among the states could be regulated by congress
Intrastate manufacturing being within state boundaries
James Madison "If men were angels, no government would be necessary."
Interstate interpretation by Congress of things that take place among states
Intrastate interpretation by Congress of things that take place in the states like manufacturing; congress could not regulate such things like working conditions, child labor, quality of goods produced
Which of the following characterizes the power of the national government during the age of dual federalism? independent of the states, realitivly low in comparison to the states, pertaining mainly to commerce, defense and international trade
During the age of dual federalism, the Supreme Court limited the power of the national government through its interpretation of which portion of the Constitution? commerce clause
Incentives provided by grants-in-aid act as a substitute for which of the following? constitutional authority
What president issued the New Deal? President Franklin D. Roosevelt
What event ushered in principles of modern federalism? the stock market crash of 1929
The argument against the child labor law involved which two amendments? 5th and 10th
According to the Tenth Amendment, powers not expressly delegated to the national government are reserved for which of the following? the states
What did the Supreme Court decide in Hammer v. Dagenhart? the law was invalidated
Fair Labor Standards Act legislative scheme for preventing shipment in interstate commerce of products and commodities produced in the US under unlawful labor conditions
What is the first and subsequent punishment for violating the Fair Labor Standards Act? both a fine and imprisonment
Which U.S. Supreme Court case did U.S. v. Darby overturn? Hammer v Dagenhart
U.S. v. Darby was decided during which period of federalism? cooperative federalism
Gibbons v. Ogdon Issues: may a state enact legislation that regulates an internal affair regarding trade? do states have the power to regulate interstate commerce? does state have the power to grant an exclusive right to state waterways?; ruling was no on all 3
Issues causing a shift from cooperative to coercive federalism were PRIMARILY of what nature? Social
How did the national government ensure cooperation with its policies during the era of coercive federalism? both through the Supreme Court's expanded interpretation of the commerce clause and by threatening to remove funding from programs.
According to the text, proponents of new federalism support which of the following measures? return of power to the states.
What president was part of the New Federalism, of devolution of power from the national government back to the states, and a massive reduction in the use of unfunded mandates? President Ronald Regan in the 1980s
We currently consider the United States to be in which of the following eras of federalism? modern federalism.
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the struggle for power between the state and federal governments? The struggle for power between the state and federal governments characterizes a federal system
According to the text, which philosophical debate PRIMARILY caused the secession of the Southern states prior to the Civil War? state sovereignty
Which president created the New Deal Programs? President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The national government withholding highway funding from states until they comply with national laws represents an example of which of the following? coercive federalism
President Johnson, according to his 1966 statement, considered the establishment of which federal agency to be "an essential building block" for the future of the United States? Department of Transportation
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 1934 introduction of wire, television, cable,radio satellite, the Internet, and cell phone
commerce clause grants Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states, the national government has seized opportunities to expand its power by increasingly regulating transportation, communications, and science and technology
Precedent set in which of the following areas could allow the federal government to preempt state activity in the regulation of net neutrality? interstate commerce
those who supported an increased role for the national government? Federalists
those who feared a strong centralized government and limitations on states' rights and responsibilities anti-Federalists
What president in 1987 introduced "Principles of Federalism?" Ronald Reagan
Principals of Federalism devolution of power back to the states that led to major tax cuts, deregulation, limits to unfunded mandates, substitution of block grants for categorical grants, and competitive funding formulas for state aid during this period
Reagan's vision of federalism differed from most other modern presidents' visions in which of the following ways? his assertion that a federal system should limit the scope of government in order to protect civil liberties
Clinton's 1998 executive order on federalism reflected ideas primarily attributed to which of the following? Federalists
In "A Time for Choosing," what does Reagan say the Founding Fathers sought to minimize? the full power of centralized government.
According to President Reagan in his First Inaugural Address, the federal government has grown beyond what the people have consented to, and was created by the states
According to the text, which of the following represents a major weakness of decentralization? it results in highly inefficient policies
According to James Madison, a tyranny of the majority could be avoided in which of the following ways? both by having a diversity of views and by extending the sphere of government
Which of the following would President Kennedy have to use to enforce the decision to integrate? federal troops
Who decided that James Meredith could register for classes at the University of Mississippi? The United States Supreme Court
Why did U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy and Mississippi Governor Barnett cancel their first plan to integrate the University of Mississippi? the fear of rioting by white Mississippians opposed to integration
Governor Barnett did NOT abide by the U.S. Supreme Court decision to integrate the University of Mississippi because he thought segregation laws were state decisions
Robert Kennedy was able to enforce the deal with Governor Barnett by telling him which of the following? Robert Kennedy said that the president would use a televised speech to expose the secret telephone conversations between the president and the governor
According to historians, the way President Kennedy handled this situation can be attributed to his President Kennedy did not understand Southern racism
Created by: amora2