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8th Grade US History - New Republic Test - Jan 2013

Protective tariff a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
loose construction way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking.
strict construction way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take.
privateers private ships authorized by a nation to attack its enemies
right of deposit right of transfer goods at a destination without having to pay fees for the cargo.
political parties groups of people who organize to help elect government officials and influence government policies.
judicial review The Supreme Court's power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
impressment British practice of forcing people, including U.S. citizens to serve in the British army or navy; led to increasing tensions between Great Britain and the US in the early 1800s
embargo banning of trade with a country
Who was the 4th US President? James Madison
Who was the 2nd US President? John Adams
Who was the 1st US President? George Washington
Who was the 3rd US President? Thomas Jefferson
What is the group called that advises the president? Cabinet
Who was Washington's Secretary of State? 1789: Thomas Jefferson 1794: Edmund Randolph
Who was Washington's Secretary of Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do? Legislation passed by Congress that created the federal court system.
Precedents by George Washington Selecting a Cabinet (president picks a group of advisors to help him make decisions), "Mr. President" (it was agreed this would be a modest way to address the chief executive), only serve 2 terms, farewell address
How did Hamilton want to reduce the national debt? He wanted to pay the country's foreign debt immediately and repay the full value of all bonds over time.
How did Hamilton convince the southern states to approve his financial plan? The southern states rejected the plan until the nation's capitol was moved to the South which becomes Washington, D.C.
What did the Neutrality Proclamation say? (1793) Statement made by President George Washington that the US would not side with any of the nations at war in Europe following the French Revolution.
What was the Whiskey Rebellion? (1794) Farmers in western Pennsylvania protested tax on whiskey. Washington responded with 13,000 troops and the farmers backed down.
What did the Whiskey Rebellion prove? That the new national government had the authority to enforce its laws.
What three warnings did Washington give in his farewell address? do not form political parties; stay out of debt; avoid entangling alliances with Europe.
What were the first two political parties in the US? Federalist and Democratic-Republicans
Who were the party leaders of the 1st two political parties in the US? Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
Why was the Election of 1796 regarded as a new era in US politics? For the first time, more than one candidate was running for election, and political parties had an important role.
Who were the candidates and what was the outcome of the Election of 1796? John Adams (Federalist) vs Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican Party); Adams won.
Explain the XYZ affair. (1797) Incident in which French agents attempted to get a bribe and loans from US diplomats in exchange for an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; it led to an undeclared war between two countries.
In regards to the XYZ affair, what was meant by "millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!"? This became the rally cry of the American people, because they wanted to protect the US from attack and refused the demands of the French bribe.
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? To silence criticism, the Federalists passed these giving the government the authority to imprison anyone considered dangerous.
Who did the Alien and Sedition laws mainly target? Used against members of the Democratic-Republican party
Who won the Election of 1800? Thomas Jefferson
What amendment was added to the Constitution as a result of the disputed election? The 12th amendment which created a separate ballot for president and vice president.
What was established in Marbury v. Madison? (1801) Court case that gave the Supreme Court the right of judicial review.
What is judicial review? Gave the court the right to check acts of the president and Congress and declare them unconstitutional.
In what year did the U.S. buy the Lousiana Purchase? 1803
Who was the Louisiana Purchase bought from? France
What body of water did the US now have full control of? Mississippi River
Who did Jefferson send to explore the new lands? Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
What were the results of the Lewis & Clark expedition? learned much about western lands and paths across the Rockies, established contact with American Indians, collected scientific info on western plants & animals.
Who passed the Embargo Act? Jefferson
What did the Embargo Act do? prohibited trade with any other countries.
What did Congress replace the Embargo Act with? Non-Intercourse Act
What is the difference between the Embargo Act and the Non-Intercourse Act? One said: couldn't trade with anyone; The other said: no trade with Britain, France and their colonies.
Who were the War Hawks? Members of Congress who favor war.
During which battle did Oliver Hazard Perry defeat the British? Battle of Lake Erie
What nickname did the USS Constitution earn during its battle at sea? "Old Ironsides"
What did the British burn in April 1814? The White House and other governmental bldgs.
What guarded Baltimore? Fort McHenry
Who is Francis Scott Key? The writer of the Star Spangled Banner song.
Why did the British attack New Orleans? In hopes to capture the city and control the Mississippi River.
Who was the US Commander when the British attacked New Orleans? Andrew Jackson
What treaty ended the war? Treaty of Ghent
What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent? Each nation returned the territory it had conquered. Agreed to address the remaining issues once there was peace.