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WCMS6 Flashcards

US History Flashcards

explored by the Spanish Colorado River
port cities grew up along these lakes Great Lakes
sailed for Spain and explored the American Southwest Francisco Coronado
lived in the Arctic where temperatures are below freezing; lived in igloos Inuit
used as transportation routes for farm and industrial products; were used as links to other bodies of water in the US Mississippi and Missouri Rivers
gateway to the West Ohio River
forms the border between the US and Mexico Rio Grande River
-forms the border between the US and Canada -connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean St. Lawrence River
-located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico -broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors Coastal Plain
-located west of the Coastal Plain -extends from Eastern Canada to Western Alabama -includes the piedmont -has old, eroded mountains (oldest mountains in N. America) Appalachian Highlands
-wrapped around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape -hills worn by erosion -hundreds of lakes carved by ice Canadian Shield
-located west of the Appalachian Highlands and east of the Great Plains -rolling flat lands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills Interior Lowlands
-located west of the Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains -flat lands that gradually increase westward -grasslands Great Plains
-located west of the Great Plains and east of the Basin & Range -rugged mountains that stretch from Alaska to almost Mexico -high elevations -contains the Continental Divide, which determines the directional flow of rivers Rocky Mountains
-located west of the Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and Cascades -varying elevations containing isolated mountains -contains Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Basin & Range
-located on the Pacific Coast, stretching from California to Canada -has rugged mountains and fertile valleys Coastal Range
explored by Lewis & Clark Columbia River
served as a highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants Atlantic Ocean
provided access to other parts of the world (Asia) Pacific Ocean
imaginary lines that run North to South on a map Lines of Longitude
imaginary lines that run East to West on a map Lines of Latitude
-lived in Pacific Northwest -climate is mild and rainy -lived in houses made of plank boards Kwakiutl
-lived in the Great Plains -dry, interior grasslands -lived in teepees, which were tents made of bison skin Lakota
-lived in Southwest desert, present-day Arizona and New Mexico -climate is hot and dry -lived in adobe homes near mountains and cliffs Pueblo
-lived in northeastern North America (Eastern Woodlands) -heavily forested -lived in longhouses Iroquois
things that come directly from nature • fish • trees • clay • stones Natural Resources
people working to produce goods and services • fisherman • hunters • farmer Human Resources
goods produced and used in order to make other goods and services • bow and arrow • canoes • tools Capital Resources
-one of North America’s oldest archaeological sites -located along the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia -archaeologists found evidence that people lived here 18,000 years ago Cactus Hill
someone who studies human behavior and cultures of the past through the recovery and analysis of artifacts Archaelogist
-sailed for England -explored eastern Canada John Cabot
-sailed for France -claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France Robert La Salle
-sailed for France -founded the French settlement of Quebec Samuel de Champlain
made voyages of discovery along the coast of West Africa Portugal
-controlled trade in West Africa from 300-1600 -traded gold for metals, cloths, and other goods with Portugal Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
-gold -spreading Christianity -power (wanting the biggest empire) Motivations for Exploration
-poor maps and navigational tools -disease -fear of the unknown -lack of adequate supplies Obstacles to Exploration
-exchanged goods and ideas with American Indians -improved navigational tools and ships -claimed new territories Accomplishments of Exploration
founded by the Separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution Plymouth Colony
founded by the Puritans who wanted to avoid religious persecution Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded by the Virginia Company as an economic venture Jamestown Settlement
- founded by Sir Walter Raleigh as an economic venture -known as The Lost Colony Roanoke Island
founded by the Quakers who wanted to practice their religion without interference Pennsylvania
founded by people in English debtors prisons who wanted economic freedom Georgia
-specialized in shipbuilding, fishing, naval supplies, and metal tools -moderate summers; cold winters -villages and church -town meetings New England Colonies
-specialized in livestock, grains, and fish -mild winters; moderate climate -diverse religions and lifestyles -market towns Mid-Atlantic Colonies
-specialized in cotton, indigo, rice, tobacco and forest products -humid climate; mild winters and hot summers -plantations and Church of England -counties Southern Colonies
-first constitution of United States Weaknesses: 1. no national government 2. congress couldn’t tax or regulate trade 3. no common currency 4. each state had only one vote 5. no executive or judicial branches Articles of Confederation
supreme law of the United States United States Constitution
first 10 amendments of the Constitution (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, right to bear arms) -written guarantee of individual rights Bill of Rights
-made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress) -makes laws Legislative Branch
-made up of the President, Vice President, and cabinet -enforces or carries out laws Executive Branch
-made up of the Supreme Court (9 Justices) -interprets or decides meaning of laws -makes sure laws follow the Constitution Judicial Branch
used as an exploration route to the Americas by the French and Spanish Gulf of Mexico
decided how many votes each state would have in the House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress) Great Compromise
Commander of the Continental Army; 1st President of the US; Bill of Rights was added to Constitution and Federal Court system established during presidency; helped design Washington, DC George Washington
Championed the cause for American independence; 2nd President of the US; only president of the first five NOT from Virginia; two-party system was established during his presidency John Adams
main author of the Declaration of Independence; 3rd President of the US; bought the Louisiana Purchase from France and sent Lewis and Clark to explore it Thomas Jefferson
4th President of the US; was president during the War of 1812 James Madison
5th President of the US; created the Monroe Doctrine that warned European countries to stay out of the Western Hemisphere James Monroe
African American astronomer and surveyor who helped design Washington, DC Benjamin Banneker
This land was split between the US and Great Britain Oregon Territory
This was added as a state after it became and independent republic Texas
War with Mexico resulted in this state and the Southwest Territory becoming part of the United States California
President Jefferson bought this land from France and it nearly doubled the size of the United States The Louisiana Purchase
Spain gave this land to the US through a treaty Florida
The belief that expansion was for the good of the US and was the right of the US (the US should expand as far as the Pacific Ocean) Manifest Destiny
population growth in the eastern states; availability of cheap, fertile land; economic opportunities (gold, lumber); transportation and knowledge of overland trails; Manifest Destiny Reasons for Westward Expansion
invented by Eli Whitney; increased the production of cotton and thus increased the need for slave labor to cultivate and pick cotton cotton gin
invented by Cyrus McCormick and Jo Anderson; increased the productivity of the American farmer reaper
invented (improved) by Robert Fulton; provided faster transportation connecting Southern plantations & farms to Northern industries & Western territories steamboat
provided faster land transportation steam locomotive (train)
a person who organizes resources to bring a new or better good/service to market in hopes of making a profit; a businessman entrepreneur
men and women who worked to end slavery abolitionist
the right to vote suffrage
led hundreds of slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman
wrote the Liberator newspaper and worked for the immediate emancipation of all enslaved African Americans William Lloyd Garrison
wrote the North Star newspaper and worked for rights for African Americans and women to better their lives Frederick Douglass
a former slave, was a nationally known advocate for equality & justice Isabella (Sojourner) Truth
an advocate to gain voting rights for women & equal rights for all Susan B. Anthony
played a leadership role in the women's rights movement Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine entered the Union as a free state Missouri Compromise
California entered the Union as a free state and the Southwest would decide the slavery issue for themselves Compromise of 1850
People in each state would decide the slavery issue through popular sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act
a tax on products from other countries to make people choose locally-made goods over foreign-made goods tariff
-16th President of the US -wanted to preserve the Union during the Civil War -wrote the “Gettysburg Address” Abraham Lincoln
president of the Confederate States of America (CSA) during the American Civil War Jefferson Davis
-leader of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil War -turned down command of Union Army -urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans Robert E. Lee
-General of the Union Army -accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, VA Ulysses S. Grant
skilled Confederate general during the Civil War Stonewall Jackson
-a nurse during the Civil War -founded the American Red Cross Clara Barton
-African American soldier and later naval captain who was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism during the Civil War -went on to become a US Congressman Robert Smalls
-written by President Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg - said the Civil War was to preserve the government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address
Confederate soldiers fired on this Union fort, marking the beginning of the Civil War Fort Sumter
this Confederate victory was the first major battle in the Civil War 1st Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)
made “freeing slaves” the new focus of the war; many freed slaves joined the Union army Emancipation Proclamation
this Union victory gave the Union control over the Mississippi River; this divided the South Battle of Vicksburg
this was the turning point of the Civil War -the North repelled Lee’s invasion Battle of Gettysburg
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant here, marking the end of the war Appomattox Courthouse
a silversmith who made a daring ride to warn colonists of the arrival of the British Paul Revere
the King of England during the American Revolution King George III
Commander of the Continental Army George Washington
stated that colonists could not settle in the land west of the Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763
no representation in Parliament -power of colonial governors -King’s control over colonial legislature -opposed taxes -Proclamation of 1763 reasons for Colonial dissatisfaction
-people have unalienable rights—life, liberty, pursuit of happiness -governments are established to protect those rights -government derives power from the people -people have a right to change a government that violates their rights key philosophies in the Declaration of Independence
Five colonists were shot and killed after taunting British soldiers Boston Massacre
the Sons of Liberty, led by Sam Adams and Paul Revere, dumped chests of tea into Boston Harbor to protest laws & taxes Boston Tea Party
delegates from every colony but Georgia met in Philadelphia to discuss problems with Britain and promote independence 1st Continental Congress
-first armed conflict of the Revolutionary War -“shot heard around the world” Lexington and Concord
-known as the “turning point” of the Revolutionary War -after this American victory, France decided to join the Americans and fight the British Battle of Saratoga
-British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered to the continental army -the last major battle of the Revolutionary War Yorktown
-Britain officially recognized American independence with this document -Britain gave the land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River to the Americans Treaty of Paris (1783)
-prominent member of the Continental Congress -helped frame (write) the Declaration of Independence -helped gain French support for American independence Benjamin Franklin
-outspoken member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses -inspired colonial patriotism with his “Give me liberty or give me death” speech Patrick Henry
British General who surrendered to George Washington and the continental army at Yorktown Lord Cornwallis
former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence Phillis Wheatley
-defending own land and principles -help from the French -strong leadership reasons why the colonies won the American Revolution
Created by: MrsBonini