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Am.History Midterm13

History Midterm 2013

QuestionAnswer
During the Gilded Age period of rapid industrialization which of the following played vital roles? technology, cheap labour, and corporate structures?
What was the significance of the development of Edison's light bulb? it created a demand for electricity thus creating new industries
In addition to creating new technology, many inventors also played what other role in the Gilded Age economy? they were entrepreneurs
Corporations bought new machines in order to achieve economies of scale.
Thomas Edison's development of the phonograph was envisioned as a practical tool for office workers. Instead it created what? the recorded sound industry.
When a single company achieves control of an entire market, it is known as a monopoly.
The government offered each railroad company building the transcontinental railroad land along its right-of-way to encourage the growth of towns along the tracks.
Issuing stock allows a corporation to raise large amounts of money for big projects while spreading out the financial risk.
What type of business does not produce anything itself? a holding company.
How did the rebate policies of the railroads help Standard Oil and John D. Rockefeller? it decreased his shipping costs allowing him to lower his prices and gain more market share
Supporters of laissez-faire government believed the government should interfere in the economy only to protect property rights and maintain peace
In the Delong article on Robber Barons, the author makes the claim that the robber barrons were totally corrupt. He bases this claim on the belief that bribery of politicians was just and right.
According to Professor Delong, in his article on the Robber Barons, Senator Aldrich of Rhode Island was referred to as "the Senator from Standard Oil". This means he used his political power to favor Standard Oil.
What role did JP Morgan play in the development of the American economy after the Civil War? he provided capital for the development of railroad lines.
Unlike a small business, a corporation is owned by shareholders
In studying the business cycle, profits are up during a high period. What else is likely to happen during this period? inflation
The creation of a transcontinental railroad network and the use of the refrigerated box cars created which of the following? a national market
Department stores changed the idea of shopping by bringing together a huge array of different products
The use of catalogues and advertisements helped create a national market for products
By the 1890s, more than half of all immigrants in the United States were eastern and southern Europeans
A letter (C or H etc.) on an immigrant's coat at Ellis island indicated a possible contagious disease
Russian Jews were "pushed" out of Russia due to which of the following conditions? pogroms
A shtetl is a poor Jewish village in Eastern Europe
According to Mary Antin, which of the following was a condition of life in "The Pale" unfair competition from Gentile businesses
Why were Americans so concerned about immigrants assimilating into American culture? they feared the loss of the English language
In differentiating themselves from the WASP and middle classes, the noveau riche built large, expensive homes and collected art
In order to gain admission to the United States, immigrants has to pass through immigration stations. Which of the following would have been part of the experience? physical and mental examinations
When immigrants from Europe arrived in America, they typically settled in ghettos
"New immigrant" groups of the Gilded Age all had what characteristic in common? they practiced non-Protestant religions
Anti-Irish feelings in America typically centered on the belief that As Catholics, the Irish would threaten Protestantism.
The Noveau riche identified themselves through conspicuous consumption of goods
The purchase of new household technology by the middle class allowed more middle class women to engage in leisure and civic activites
Ethnic ghettoes were defined by which of the following criteria? churches, synagogues, and grocerias
The Lower East Side is an ethnic ghetto in New York
Which of the following supported immigrant women and children through education and job training? settlement house women
Which of the following would indicate significant changes to American class structure by 1890? the creation of genealogical societies and country clubs
Political machines, in exchange for votes, provided immigrants with jobs and housing, and police protection
The purchase of books and music by the middle class created an illusion of education and culture.
Employers generally viewed unions as conspiracies that interfered with property rights
Democrats lost the election of 1896 because the Populist movement was rejected by voters in the industrial cities
The Knights of Labour supported which of the following goals? end to child labour and an 8 hour work day
New technology helped farmers produce more crops, which caused prices to fall
Which of the following were major issues in the election of 1896? freesilver
The Knights of Labour suffered a steady decline in membership and influence due to lost strikes and the Haymarket Riot
A ______ was a technique for breaking a union in which the company refused to allow workers onto their property. lockout
In order to alleviate the burden of high bank debt, the Populists advocated the free coinage of silver
In response to the lockout at Homestead, workers violently battled with Pinkerton agents
During the Uprising of 20,000 in NYC, factory owners used their relationship with ____ to help break the strike. Tammany Hall
Clara Lemlich sweatshop worker who helped organize the Uprising of the 20,000
A strike is a work stoppage
Under the philosophy of Social Darwinism, owners of companies have a moral responsibility to their workers because the owners are given more talent and intelligence and must use it in a beneficial way
In order to combat falling prices due to competition, farmers did which of the following organized farmer's cooperatives
The AFL was characterized by which of the following? the AFL favored negotiations over more radical techniques like strikes
Why was the Haymarket Riot so significant to the labour movement? it led to an association between labour and radical violence
Eugene Debs head of the American Railway Union
In the election of 1896, who strongly pushed for the abandonment of the gold standard? William Jennings Bryan
The Uprising of the 20,000 ultimately failed because the cold weather and lack of funds caused the strikers to give up
Which of the following would NOT be considered a common industrial working condition of the late 1800s? sick and disability time off
Which of the following best defines the Progressive movement? middle-class response to urbanization and industrialization
Progressives worked for all of the following EXCEPT establishment of laissez-faire clauses
Which of the following beliefs was strongly advocated by Progressives? that government could work if fixed
Why did progressive reforms become so important by the early 1900s? big business was creating environmental and workplace problems
Progressivism was partly a reaction against ___ economics, which emphasized an unregulated free market. laissez-faire
What role did muckrakers play during the Progressive Era? they wrote books and articles exposing problems in America
As a result of the publication of The Jungle, reformers in Congress passed which law Pure Food and Drug Act
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court declared the 10 hour work day for women was in fact constitutional
As a result of the initiative reform citizens can propose a state law bypassing the state legislature
The 16th and 17th Amendments create a national income tax and the direct election of US senators
In the Northern Securities case, Teddy Roosevelt was able to prove that attempts by railroad men to control transportation in the Northwest violated anti-trust laws
Theodore Roosevelt viewed the coal miners strike against mine owners in 1902 as an example of groups pursuing their private interest at the expense of the nation
In order to prevent the destruction of natural resources, President Roosevelt did what? set aside land as federal preserves
The Federal Reserve System was created to help stabilize the economy through a national banking system
Why did women oppose the women's suffrage movement? they saw politics as beneath a woman's dignity
Mississippi took the first step to prohibit African Americans from voting when it required that all citizens registering to vote pay a poll tax
To combat the provisions of the 14th Amendment, southern state governments created separate but equal facilities
In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court decided that separate but equal laws were constitutional
The sharecropping system kept blacks tied to the land by cheating black workers out of wages earned in the feilds
In using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, TR was balance the needs of big businesses with protection for consumers and small businesses
What is the connection between women's suffrage and prohibition? in states where women could vote, they often supported a ban on alcohol
The purpose of the Volstead Act was to enforce Prohibition
Many Americans feared that the country was losing its traditional values and responded by joining a religious movement known as Fundamentalism
Xenophobia in the 1920s can best be seen through the Palmer raids
Why was John Scopes put on trial? violation of the Butler Act
The Volstead Act allowed for certain exceptions for alcohol. Which of the following was not an exception to Prohibition bootleg whiskey
As more Americans explored the ______ world they moved away from the sacred world. secular
While most people publicly supported Prohibition, many privately drank. This was possible due to which of the following circumstances? Bootlegging, Moonshining, and Speakeasies
What was the connection between fundamentalism and Prohibition? both were rooted in the strong belief in small town American values
The Palmer Raids of 1919-1920 demonstrated America's increasing concern over the threat from communism
Al Capone was America's most notorious bootlegger
Which of the following factors hampered the federal government in its attempt to enforce Prohibition? lack of money and corrupt politicians
The National Origins Acts were intended to favor immigrants from Northern and Western Europe
Many Americans considered young people of the 1920s to be languid or lazy
The United States Census of 1920 showed what significant new trend in the US? more people lived in the cities than in rural America
What role did The Great War play in bringing in prohibition of alcohol? it connected anti-German beliefs with the evils of alcohol
Why did Prohibition fail by the end of the 1920s? it created a violent national network of criminals, it was expensive to enforce, most Americans did not support the law and drank anyways
Enforcement of Prohibition was difficult because many elected officials would not strongly enforce the laws. Which president of the 1920s would best fit this description? the stikers were Warren Harding
The strikes of 1919 all failed in large part because: the strikers were portrayed as un-american
In order to spur consumerism, manufacturers used what new strategy? planned obsolescence
Each of the three Presidents in the 1920s had what in common? All three were anti-progressive and pro-business
The rise of the stock market in the 1920s demonstrated the belief in riches for everyone
What would be a major difference between the economy of the Guilded Age and the economy of the 1920s? regulation of business
Buying on margin was a method of buying stocks with mostly borrowed money
By manufacturing the Model-T, Henry Ford was creating new jobs. How were these new jobs created? increased demand for cars led to new jobs created in the glass and rubber industries
During the Great Depression, when a bank collapsed, depositors lost their savings
In search of work or a better life during the Depression, many unemployed people rode the rails
Amongst the many problems of the Dust Bowl, this was the most deadly dust pneumonia
Which of the following would have been a cause of the Dust Bowl? overproduction of wheat
How did the majority of Plains farmers respond to the conditions of the Dust Bowl? they continued to plant and hope it would rain
During the Depression, charities set up _____ to give poor people a meal. soup kitchens
The Hawley-Smoot Tariff had what effect on the American economy? it led to a trade war with Europeans, leading to less consumption of American goods
Newly homeless people put up communities of shacks or shantytowns that they called Hoovervilles
Underconsumption was a major cause of the Great Depression because It led to a drop in the price of consumer goods
A citizen of the Tri-Town is hurt by the stock market crash despite having no money invested in the market. How is this possible? Their bank closed due to unpaid loans
The stock market took its steepest dive on October 29th, 1929, the day now known as Black Tuesday
The stock market Crash in 1929 contributed to the onset of the Great Depression in what way? it caused a loss of confidence in the economy
A long period of rising stock prices is known as a bull market
How did the real life problems facing many Americans impact of the making of the movies of the 1930s? Hollywood created escapist fantasies allowing people to forget their problems
Speculators bought stocks, betting that the market would continue to climb so that they could make a quick profit. This created what problem? unstable stock prices
The rising consumerism of the 1920s contributed to the economic crisis of the the 1930s in what way? increased debt for the average family
When too few people have too much money this is known as uneven distribution of wealth. How does this help cause an economic downturn or recession? the rich tend to spend on luxury items contributing to underconsumption
When banks closed, how did this contribute to higher unemployment? banks restricted their lending of money, leading to decreased business oppertunities
The policy of trickle down economics helped stimulate the economy in the 1920s by cutting taxes on the rich leading to reinvestment and jobs
The policy of trickle down economics led to a crash in the economy because it led to uneven income distribution
As families left the Great Plains, what impact did this exodus have on farming communities? it caused stores and banks to close
Unions declined during the 1920s in part because many corporations instituted welfare capitalism
The significance of Ford's Model-T can best be described as it helped create mass consumerism
The political philosophy of Calvin Coolidge can best be described as the business of America is business
President Harding's secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly allowed private interests to lease lands containing US Navy oil reserves, causing a scandal that came to be known as the Teapot Dome scandal.
Created by: angelaolivia