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CLEP Sociology

Sociology CLEP Test Topics

QuestionAnswer
agricultural societies/agrerian societies The most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society. Members are primarily engaged in the production of food but increase their crop yield through such innovations as the plow.
altruistic suicide Durkheim: The most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society. Members are primarily engaged in the production of food but increase their crop yield through such innovations as the plow.
anomic suicide Durkheim: reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval.
Anomie Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Ascribed Status A social position "assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.
Auguste Comte He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism
authoritarian government one in which political authority is concentrated in a small group of politicians
C. Wright Mills
charismatic authority Max Weber's term for power made legitimate by a leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers.
Charles Horton Cooley looking glass self, which is the concept that a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others. Also - primary and secondary groups.
cognitive development theory Jean Piaget's theory explaining how children's thought progresses through four stages.
Concentric Zone model of city growth A theory of urban growth that sees growth in terms of a series of rings radiating from the central business district.
concrete operational stage of coginitive developement theory third of four stages, 7 and 11 years and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic
conflict perspective A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
conflict theory fathered by Karl Marx - all things exist in conflict
Contagion Theory Gustave Le Bon, crowds exert a hypnotic influence over their members
Control Group Subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.
Convergence Theory people who want to act in a certain way come together to form crowds
counterculture A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
cultural relitivism The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
Differential Association Theory A theory of deviance proposed by Edwin Sutherland that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
Division of Labor a process whereby the production process is broken down into a sequence of stages and workers are assigned to particular stages
Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory - Social life is not disorganized but patterned through learned behavior
egoistic suicide prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community, an experience, of not having a tether, an absence that can give rise to meaninglessness, apathy, melancholy, and depression
Emergent-norm theory Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian, crowds begin as collectivities composed of people with mixed interests and motives
Emile Durkheim
Erik Erikson
ethical problems
ethnocentrism The tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.
Expressive Leaders
Family of Orientation
Family of Procreation
fatalistic suicide when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline
Ferdinand Tonnies best known for his distinction between two types of social groups, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
fertility rate The amount of reproduction among women of childbearing age.
Folkways Norms governing everyday social behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern.
formal operational stage of coginitive developement theory
Free-market system of distribution
functional approach A sociological approach that emphasizes the way that parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
functionalism
functionalist view of deviance
functionalist view of stratification
gemeinschaft Communities: A term used by Ferdinand Tönnies to describe close-knit communities, often found in rural areas, in which strong personal bonds unite members.
general deterrence
gesellschaft Societies: A term used by Ferdinand Tönnies to describe communities, often urban, that are large and impersonal with little commitment to the group or consensus on values.
Group Conformity
Gustave Lebon
Hawthorne Effect The unintended influence that observers or experiments can have on their subjects.
horticultural societies Preindustrial societies in which people plant seeds and crops rather than subsist merely on available foods.
hunting societies A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fiber are readily available in order to live.
In-group Any group or category to which people feel they belong.
Institutionalized Racism The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
Instrumental Leaders
intragenerational mobility Changes in the social position of children relative to their parents.
Iron Law of Oligarchy A principle of organizational life developed by Robert Michels under which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.
J. L. Moreno
Jean Piaget
Karl Marx
Legitimacy
Lewis Killian
Looking-glass self A concept used by Charles Horton Cooley that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions with others.
Master status A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.
Max Weber
Mores Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
Norms Established standards of behavior maintained by a society.
Overurbanization
Parkinson's Law
pastoral societies
Peer Group
Peter Principle A principle of organizational life, originated by Laurence J. Peter, according to which each individual within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
Pluralist Model A view of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to governmental officials so that no single group is dominant.
Polytheistic
Population Growth Rate
postindustrial society A society whose economic system is primarily engaged in the processing and control of information.
Power Elite model A term used by C. Wright Mills for a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States.
preoperational stage of coginitive developement theory
primary group A small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
psychoanalysis
Ralph Turner
rational-legal authority
reality principle
Reference Group Any group that individuals use as a standard in evaluating themselves and their own behavior.
representative sample A selection from a larger population that is statistically found to be typical of that population
Robert Merton
Robert Michels
role conflict Difficulties that occur when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.
role strain Difficulties that result from the differing demands and expectations associated with the same social position.
sacred Elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear.
secondary analysis A variety of research techniques that make use of publicly accessible information and data.
sect A relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it views as the original vision of the faith.
sensorimotor
sigmund freud
social change Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values.
social control The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
social mobility Movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society's stratification system to another.
social movement Organized collective activities to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society.
social stratification A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society.
socialization agents
society A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
sociocultural evolution The process of change and development in human societies that results from cumulative growth in their stores of cultural information.
sociological imagination An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
sociometry
status A term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
status set
stigma A label used to devalue members of deviant social groups.
stratified sampling
subculture A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.
survey A study, generally in the form of interviews or questionnaires, that provides sociologists and other researchers with information concerning how people think and act.
symbolic interactionism
tertiary sector of the economy
The Elementary FOrms of Religious Life
The Power Elite A term used by C. Wright Mills for a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States.
the Protestant Ethic Max Weber's term for the disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers.
the Spirit of Capitalism
totalitarian government
traditional authority Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice.
Verstehen The German word for "understanding" or "insight"; used by Max Weber to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people's emotions, thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes.
voluntary associations
sex ratio
Robert Park
Karl Mannheim
Chicago School of Sociology
primary groups A small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
Comte Coined the term socilogy; founder of sociology; 19th century positivist
mechanical solidarity
functional differentiation
organic solidarity
co-optation
The three dimensions of social stratification
SMSA (meaning)
positivism in the social as well as natural sciences, information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments and reports of such data, are together the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge
Created by: Sarah1948