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Philosophy

QuestionAnswer
Logic easoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity
rhetoric The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing.
statement a declarative sentence. truth-value, can be true or false
truth value either of the values, true or false, that may be taken by a statement
argument a series of statements provided as support for another statement (conclusion)
Premise(s) a collective series of statements to establish a definite proposition
conclusion the summing up of an argument
inference (inferential claim) the process of reasoning from one set of principles to another, as in an argument
form contains logical relationship between logic and conclusion
content what the argument is about, the "meat" of the argument
deductive argument if premise is true, conclusion must necessarily be true too
valid argument the conclusion does indeed follow from premise
sound argument if the argument is valid AND all the premises, and conclusion, are true.
inductive argument if the premise is true, conclusion is probably true
strong argument the premise claim to provide strong
content what the argument is about, the metaphorical tofu of the argument
deductive argument (deduction) an instance of reasoning from one principle to another in accord with accepted rules of inference. Sometimes defined more narrowly as the inference from a general premise to a particular conclusion by means of a syllogism
valid argument (validity) said of an argument that correctly follows agreed-upon rules of inference. Always applies to arguments, not statements
sound argument (soundness) a good argument; a deductive argument that is valid and has true premises
inductive argument (induction) the process of inferring general conclusions (for example, ("All swans are white") from a sufficiently large sample of particular observations ("This swan is white, that swan is white, and that one, and that one, and that one...")
strong argument (strength) an inductive argument whose evidence makes the truth of the conclusion highly probable
cogent argument (cogency) persuasive relevance
fallacy (formal and informal) an invalid argument
inconsistency not staying the same throughout; having self-contradictory elements
incoherence lacking coherence; not fitting together in an orderly or logically agreeable fashion. Using fancy jargon that has no precise meaning may be a source of incoherence. So is a mere list of random beliefs, without any order or logic to hold them together.
paradox a self-contradictory or seemingly absurd conclusion based on apparently good arguments
tautology a trivially true statement, or a statement that is necessarily true by virtue of its form
begging the question assuming the truth of the point at issue in a question, for example, "How do I know God would not deceive me?" "Because the natural light of reason with which he endowed me tells me so."
ad hominem attack an argument aimed at criticizing the individual but ignoring the issue completely
counterexample method to argue against inductive generalizations
Created by: Papa For