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microbiology

humans and the microbial world

QuestionAnswer
1676 antony van leeuwenhoek observed bacteria and protozoa using first microscope
1796 edward jenner intr a vaccination procedure for smallpox, injected son
1838-1839 mathias schleden and theodor schwann proposed that all organisms are composed of cells
1847-1850 ignaz semmelwels demonstrated that puerperal or dhildbed fever is contagious dz transmitted by physicians to their patients during childbirth (wash hands)
1853-1854 john snow demonstrated epidemic spread of cholera thru water supply contaiminated with human sewage
1822-1895 louis pasteur demonstrated that yeast can degrade sugar to ethanol
1822-1895 pasteur publishes experiment that refutes theory of spontaneuous generation
1822-1895 develops pasteurization as a method to destroy unwanted organisms in wine
1827-1912 joseph lister and antiseptics
joseph lister father of antiseptic surgery
1843-1910 robert koch demonstrates that anthrax is caused by bacterium
1843-1910 koch introduces use of pure culture techniquies for handling bacteria in lab
1843-1910 koch indentifies causative agent of tuberculosis
1843-1910 koch states koch's postulates
pure culture only one organism
1845-1916 elie metchnikoff discovers phagocytes and their role inengulfing bacteria
1908 paul ehrlich started chemo to treat dz
1928 fredrick griffith discovered genetic transformation in bacteria
1929 alexander fleming discovers and describes properties of the first antibiotic
first antibiotic penicillin
1944 oswald avery, colin macleod, and maclyn mccarty demonstrated that griffiths transforming principle is DNA
1944 joshua lederberg and edward tarum demonstrated that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
conjugation process of genetic recombination between 2 organisms (bacteria or protists) via cytoplasmic bridge between them
1953 james watson, francis crick, rosalind franklin, and maurice wilkins determine structure of DNA
microbiology study of organisms too small to be seen with human eye
microbiology born as science 1674
anthony van leeuwenhoek dutch drapery merchant, ground lens to view fabric, peer into drop of lake water
animalcules van leeuwenhoek called organisms this
spontaneous generation organisms arise from nonliving matter
franscesco redi italian biologist, physician, worms on rotting meat from flies, not spontaneous
louis pasteur father of modern microbiology, air filled with microorganisms
swan neck flask pasteur used to show air filled with microbes
john tyndall concluded different infusions required different boiling times, some 5 min. others 5 hours
endospore heat resistant life form
ferdinand cohn discovered endospores
organisms responsible for production of oxygen and nitrogen, key elements for all living organisms
microorganisms decomposers, responsible for breakdown of variety of material
probiotics bacteria used to protect against intestinal infection & bowel cancer, good flora
fermentationof milk used to produce yogurt, cheese, buttermilk
bioremediation use organisms to degrade environmental waste, clean oil spills, radioactive waste, etc.
bacteria can synthesize ethanol, pesticides, antibiotics, dietary amino acids
genetic engineering introduce genes of one organism into an unrelated organism to confer new properties on organism
genetic engineering used to produce medically important products an dvaccines, engineer plants to resist dz, gene therapy
1854-1914 golden age of microbiology
b/w 1875-1918 most dz causing bacteria discovered
toxic shock syndrome from tampons, disc in 1980's, high fever and low BP and rash are symptons
Legionnaires’ disease disc. 1976, when many people who went to a Philadelphia convention of the American Legion suffered from an outbreak of this disease, a type of pneumonia
lyme dz caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks, symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and rash
west nile dz disc in 1999, symptoms are fever, headache, body aches, skin rash or swollen lymph glands
SARS caused by a coronavirus, pneumonia like symptoms
factors associated with emergine diseases changing lifestyles and genetic changes in organisms
resurgence of old dz often more serious, resistant to treatment
reasons for resurgence increase travel, unvaccinated indiv susceptible to infection
chronic diseases caused by bacteria
gastric ulcers caused by helicobacter pylori
pathogen dz causing bacteria
bacteria outnumber cells in body 10:1
domains bacteria, archaea, eucarya, 3 domiains, but only 2 cell types
prokaryotes unicellular, incl bacter adn archaea
eucarya uni and multicellular
microbial world living orgainsms and non living agents
protozoa proteins, unicellular only
prokaryote no membrance bound organelles
eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles
bacteria and archaea single celled organisms, no membrane bound nucleus, no other organelles
cytoplasm of prokaryotes surrounded by rigid cell wall
eucarya contain membrane bound nucleus, contain internal organelles, single or nulticellular, ex. mitochondria
domain bacteria most common type in human infection
bacteria characteristics rod-shaped, spherical and spiral; rigid cell walls
bacteria characteristics multiply by binary fission, 1into2, 2into4, each cell identical to first, motile by flagella
domain archaea rod shaped, sperhical, spiral, binary fission, motile by flagellum
archaea chem composition of cell wall differ, found in extreme environments, extreme temps and high concentration of salts
domain eucarya eukaryotic, composed of single cell eucarya-algae fungi, protozoa
algae single and multicell organisms, contain chlorophyll, found near surface waters, rigid cell wall
chlorophyll pigments used to absorb light to be used as energy source
fungi single and multicellular, gain energy from organic materials, found on land, live off dead saprophytes
yeast single cell fungi
molds multi cell fungi
protozoa microscopic, single celled, found in water and land, larger than prokaryote
protozoa doesn't have rigid cell wall, energy from organic matter, motile, cilia, flagella, pseudopod
helminths claled parasites, include round worms and tapeworms
strain members of same pspecies may differ from one another in minor ways, ie. E. coli B or E.coli K12
binomial namein system first word is genus, second species; first word capitalized, full name italicized
virus, viroids, prions non-living, called agents, consis of few molecules found in living cells
virus contain protein coat surrounding nucleic acid, protein bag of nucleic acid
virus termed obligate intracellular parasites must have host to replicate, inactive outside of host
virus all forms can be infected by virus, frequently kill host cells, some live with host
viroids simpler than viruses, require host cell for replication, consist of single short piece of RNA, no protective protein coat
viroids smaller than viruses, cause plant dz, no DNA genome, only RNA
prions infectious proteins, no DNA or RNA
prions responsible for six neurodegerative dz, animal-scrapie in sheep, mad cow; human-kuru, creutzfelt-jakob
Created by: nndesananto