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phonology vocab

Vocab for phonology

QuestionAnswer
rhotic a dialect in which the /r/ is pronounced before a consonant and at the end of the word. Ex. port, dear curl
assimilation refers to a phoneme being spoken differently when it is near another phoneme. Ex. And /ae nd/is usually spoken as /n/ in rapid, casual speech
diphthong a complex speech sound or glide that begins with one vowle and gradually changes to another vowel within the same syllable A. Ex. /oi/ in boil or /i/ in fine.
elision Omission of a sound between two words (usually a vowel and the end of one word one word or the beginning of the next). Ex. John and Peter are going to the store. The verb "are" is elided to a mere schwa.
affricative (or affricate) A consonant characterized by frictional passage of the expired breath through a narrowing at some point in the vocal tract. The sounds v, th (thin), th (then), s, z, h, sh, s (measure)
plosives A stop or occlusive produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The sounds p, t, k, b, d, g are English plosives.
reduction Shortening pronunciation of words. Ex. wanna, gimme, lemme
laterals /L/-like consonants sounds. Examples: clear /l/ as in lady, fly and the dark /l/ as in bold or tell
linking sounds sounds that are joined together, frequently a final consonant with an initial consonant or a vowel with an initial vowel by inserting a /w/ or a /y/. turn off = turn off, so I = soWI, do all = doWall
morpheme the smallest unit of language system that has meaning.
root word or base word where the actual meaning is determined
prefix appears in front of the root or base word and can alter its meaning
suffix a letter or letters added to the end of the word; can alter the original tense or meaning of the root or base word
morphology the process of how the words of a language are formed to create meaningful messages.
free morpheme able to stand by themselves (chair, bag)
bound or derivational morpheme need to be used with other morphemes to create meaning (read-able, en-able).
normalizers largest group of derivative suffixes are normalizers. -acy, -ance, -ician, -ism, -ist, -ity, -ment, -ster, -able, -al, -an, -atic
Why is knowledge of derivational morphemes helpful? knowing meanings of derivational morphemes like prefixes and suffixes help to decode meaning and create words in the language through word analysis. Ex. un-happy means not happy
morphemic analysis Process of breaking a word down into its component parts to determine its meaning
In English, all inflections... are suffixes and occur at the very end of the word
Created by: jmceath