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APHUG Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
Literary Tradition -A system of written communication. -Hundreds of languages lack this so it is hard to document distribution of many languages.
Dialect -A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. -Happens when speakers of a language migrate to other locations. -English has a large number of this
Language Tree Components Big To Small: Language Families: Indo-European Language Branches: German Language Groups: West-Germanic Language: English Dialects: Northeastern (Region) Accents: Boston (In City or state)
Lingua Franca -Language of international communication Ex: English
Isogloss -A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate -Determined by collecting data directly from people, particularly natives of rural areas. -People are shown pictures or sentences to complete with a particular word.
Religious Branch Large and fundamental division within a religion
Denomination -Division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Sect -Relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Ethnic Religions -Appeals to one group of people living in one place. -Unknown Source -High clustered followers -Holiday based on climate and agricultural practice -Content focused on place and landscape of origin
Universalizing Religions -Attempts to be global, to appeal to all people, whether they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. -Individual Founder -Holiday based on events in founder's life
Hierarchical Religion -A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control -Has well defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units. Ex: Roman Catholicism
Nationalism -Politicians and governments trying to instill loyalty through this -Promotes a sense f national consciousness that exalts one nation above all others and emphasizes it culture and interests
White Flight -1950's and 1960's: Segregation laws were eliminated, so black and white schools had to integrate. White's fled. -Ex: Detroit. 1 million white's fled, and Black's continue to increase. -White Flight was encouraged by blockbusting.
Apartheid -The physical separation of different races into different geographic areas. -South Africa apartheid laws were repealed in 1990s. -These laws determined where races lived, worked, etc.
Cultural Diversity LOOK AT NOTES IN BINDER
Nation -Tightly knit group of people who share a common culture. -
State Self governing political entity. -An area organized into a political unit and rules by and established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Sovereignty State has rights to govern itself. -Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Antarctica -Claimed by: Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway United Kingdom -It's the only large landmass in the world that is not part of a sovereign state -50% larger than Canada
Elongated -A state with a long, narrow shape. -Suffers from poor internal communications. -Region located from the end might be isolated from the capital.
Perforated -A state that completely surrounds another one. -They must have good communication and relation to be able to export and import and other things.
Compact A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. Beneficial characteristic for smaller states, because it's easier to reach other regions of the state.
Porupted -An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension. -Created to provide a state access to a resource. -To separate two states that would otherwise share a boundary.
Fragmented -Includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. -2 kinds: Fragmented states separated by water -Fragmented states separated by an intervening obstacle.
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Gerrymandering Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
Colonialism -Attempt by one's country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
What qualifies as a "State"? -Recognized boundaries -Permanent population -Economic activity: Issues trade and money -Social Engineering: Education -Transportation System -Government -External Recognition
NIR Density Map -The percentage growth in a year, computed as the CBR-CDR. -2+%: Mostly Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, Central America -Below 0%: Russia, Eastern European States
CBR Density Map -The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. -35+: Central Africa, East Africa -Below 10: Russia, Europe, China, Australia, Big States in South America, USA, Canada
CDR Density Map -The total number of deaths in a year of every 1,000 people alive in the society. -4.0+: 3/4 of Africa (Not the top, not the bottom) -Below 2.0: Russia and Europe, China, Canada, Chile
TFR Density Map The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Large Scale Maps See more descriptive places Focus' on a small piece of land
Small Scale Maps You can't really see much detail Focus' on a large piece of land
Site -Physical and Human characteristics of a place Ex: My house
Situation -Relative location Ex: My house' location based on other places like OHS
Formal Region -Uniform -Homogeneous, everyone shares one or more distinct characteristic Ex: Montana
Functional Region -Nodal -Begins at core and moves outwards Ex: Sports teams Allegiance
Vernacular Region -Perceptual/Cultural -A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity, Geographers refer to culture here Ex: American South
Contagious Diffusion -Apart of Expansion Diffusion -Rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population. -Wave like
Expansion Diffusion -Spread of feature from one place to another in snowballing process -3 types
Hierarchical Diffusion -Apart of Expansion Diffusion -Spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons of pleas. Ideas leapfrog bypassing some.
Relocation Diffusion -Spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another. Occurs when immigrants carry new ideas or practices with them.
Stimulus Diffusion -Apart of Expansion Diffusion -Spread of an underlying principle, even through a characteristic itself apparently falls to diffuse. -Specific trait rejected, idea accepted Ex: Mcdonalds in Asia, they serve rice
Dependency Ratio -The number of people under the age of 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in labor force. -The larger the percentage of dependents (<15, >64), the greater the financial burden to those who are working. 1:2 is good.
Thomas Malthus -English Economist -Population increased geometrically, food supply increased arithmetically
Neo-Malthusians -Thought Malthus failed to consider LDC's and that they have a more rapid population growths. So, the gap between population growth and resources would be bigger. -Population isn't just outstripping food, but other productions. -Wars and violence will i
Doubling Time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increases.
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
Mobility All types of movement from one location to another. Short term, repetitive movements on a daily basis.
Net Immigration NET MIGRATION: The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. -Occurs when immigrants exceed emigrants, net migration is positive. The region has a net in-migration. IN OTHER WORDS: out - in = Net migration.
Refugees Migration -They migrate mostly for economic reasons. -Cultural and environmental also induce migration, but not as much.
Intervening Obstacles Environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration.
Current Intraregional Migration MDC (meaning USA): Cities to suburbs LDC: Rural to urban
Suburbanization -Movement of people to homes near suburbs -Not because of employment -Suburbs are pulled by a suburban lifestyle: It offers detached houses Schools are more modern, safer, and better equipped. -Automobiles and trains
Counter Urbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Custom A repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes the characteristic of the group
Habit A repetitive act that a particular individual performs.
Folk Culture Traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogeneous people living in isolated rural areas.
Pop Culture Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Diff. In Both Culture's Music F: Tells a story or conveys info. about daily activities: cycle events natural disasters. Created 2697 BC. Made anonymously and transmitted orally. Modified as time changes P: Written by individuals to be sold to large # of people. Created around 1900'
Example of Contagious Jeans
Example of Hierarchical ...
Example of Relocation ...
Example of Stimulus Clothing
Taboo A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
Uniform Landscape -The distribution of popular culture around the world tends to produce more uniform landscape. Ex: Fast food restaurants -It has diffused from North America to other parts of the world.
Shape Effects on Communication -Shape influences the ease or difficulty of internal administration and can affect social unity.
The Law of The Sea -Signed by 158 countries -Standardized territorial limits for most countries at 12 nautical miles, 14 land miles. -States have exclusive rights to fish and other marine life within 200 miles. -Disputes taken to Tribunal or International Court of Justi
Cultural Boundaries Follow distribution of cultural characteristics 3 types: Geometric: Straight line Religious: Separate speakers of different languages or followers of religions, not used usually. Language: Language is important part for drawing boundaries
Arithmetic Density Number of objects in area
Physiological Density Number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture People: Arable Land
Agricultural Density Number of Farmers per unit of area suitable for farmland Farmers: Arable land
Malthus' Critics -Malthus thinks that the world's supply of resources is fixed. -More population, more ideas on how to fix this.
Emigration Migration from a location.
Immigration Migration to a new location.
IMR -annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age to total live births. Usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 births, than percentage. -60+: Middle Africa, Pakistan, Southeast Asia -Below 6: Canada, Europe, Australia, Japan, Korea
Created by: mmartin50
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