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APUSH Unit 5

Chapters 18-21

"Popular sovereignty" was the idea that... The people of a territory should determine for themselves whether or not to permit slavery
In the election of 1848, the response of the Whig and Democratic parties to the rising controversy over slavery was... To attempt to ignore the issue
Quick formation of an effective government in California was essential because of... The very large and unruly population drawn into the state by the discovery of gold
The proposed admission of California directly into the Union was dangerously controversial because... California's admission as a free state would destroy the equal balance of slave and free states in the Senate
The existence of the "Underground Railroad" added to southern demands for... A stricter federal Fugitive Slave Law
Among the notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850 were... Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the "betrayal" of Senator... Daniel Webster
What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850? California was admitted to the Union as a free state, and slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories would be left up to popular sovereignty
The final battle to gain passage of the Compromise of 1850 was substantially aided by... The death of President Taylor and the succession of President Fillmore
The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850 was... The north.
One of the primary effects of the Fugitive Slave Law passed as a part of the Compromise of 1850 was... A sharp rise in northern antislavery feeling
The conflict over slavery after the election of 1852 led shortly to... The death of the Whig party
Southerners seeking to expand the territory of slavery undertook filibustering military expeditions to acquire... Nicaragua and Cuba
The primary goal of Commodore Matthew Perry's treaty with Japan in 1854 was... Opening Japan to American trade
Northerners especially resented Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Act because... It repealed the Missouri Comrpomise prohibiting slavery in northern territories
Hotheaded southern agitators who pushed for southern interests and favored secession from the Union Fire-Eaters
The doctrine that the issue of slavery should be decided by the residents of a territory themselves, not by the federal government Popular Sovereignty
The boundary line between slave and free states in the East, originally the southern border line of Pennsylvania Mason-Dixon Line
The informal network that conducted runaway slaves from the South to Canada Underground Railroad
Senator William Seward's doctrine that slavery should be excluded from the territories as contrary to a divine moral law standing above even the Constitution Higher Law
The provision of the Compromise of 1850 that comforted southern slave-catchers and aroused the wrath of northern abolitionists Fugitive Slave Law
Third-party entry in the election of 1848 that opposed slavery expansion and prepared the way for the Republican Party Free Soil Party
A series of agreements between North and South that temporarily dampened the slavery controversy and led to a short-lived era of national good feelings Compromise of 1850
Political party that fell apart and disappeared after losing the election of 1852 Whigs
An agreement between Britain and America concerning any future Central American canal Clayton-Bulner Treaty
A top-secret dispatch, drawn up by American diplomats in Europe, that detailed a plan for seizing Cuba from Spain Ostend Manifesto
Southwestern territory acquired by the Pierce administration to facilitate a southern transcontinental railroad Gadsden Purchase
The sectional agreement of 1820, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act Missouri Compromise
The political party that was deeply divided by Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Act Democrats
A new political party organized as a protest against the Kansas-Nebraska Act Republicans
American naval commander who opened Japan to the West in 1854 Matthew Perry
Democratic presidential candidate in 1848, original proponent of the idea of "popular sovereignty" Lewis Cass
Weak Democratic president whose pro-southern cabinet pushed aggressive expansionist schemes Franklin Pierce
Famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad who rescued more than 300 slaves from bondage Harriet Tubman
Illinois politician who helped smooth over sectional conflict in 1850 but then reignited it in 1854 Stephen A. Douglas
Central American nation desired by proslavery expansionists in the 1850s Nicaragua
Military hero of the Mexican War who became the Whigs' last presidential candidate in 1852 Winfield Scott
Whig president who nearly destroyed the Compromise of 1850 before he died in office Zachary Taylor
Rich Spanish colony coveted by American proslavery expansionists in the 1850s Cuba
American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia with China in 1844 Caleb Cushing
The ruling warrior dynasty of Japan with whom Matthew Perry negotiated the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 Tokugawa Shogunate
New York senator who argued that the expansion of slavery was forbidden by a "higher law" William Seward
Nation whose 1844 treaty with the US opened the door to a flood of American missionaries China
Northern spokesman whose support for the Compromise of 1850 earned him the hatred of abolitionists Daniel Webster
Acquired from Mexico in 1848 and admitted as a free state in 1850 without ever having been a territory California
Cause: The evasion of the slavery issue by Whigs and Democrats in 1848 Effect: Led to the formation of the new Free Soil antislavery party
Cause: The California gold rush Effect: Made the issue of slavery in the Mexican Cession areas more urgent
Cause: The Underground Railroad Effect: Aroused southern demands for an effective fugitive-slave law
Cause: The Free Soil Party Effect: Aroused active northern resistance to legal enforcement and prompted attempts at nullification in Massachusetts
Cause: The Pierce administration's schemes to acquire Cuba Effect: Fell apart after the leaking of the Ostend Manifesto
Cause: The Gadsden Purchase Effect: Heightened competition between southern and northern railroad promoters over the choice of a transcontinental route
Cause: Stephen Douglas's indifference to slavery and desire for a northern railroad route Effect: Led to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, without regard for the consequences
Cause: The Kansas-Nebraska Act Effect: Caused a tremendous northern protest and the birth of the Republican party
True or false: Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin greatly weakened northern antislavery feeling. False. It strengthened it.
Hinton R. Helper's novel The Impending Crisis of the South contended that... Slavery did great harm to the poor whites of the south
The conflict over slavery in Kansas was greatly escalated by... Abolitionist-funded settlers and proslavery "border ruffians" from Missouri
As presented to Congress, the Lecompton Constitution provided for... The admission of Kansas as a slave state
The fanatical abolitionist John Brown made his first entry into violent antislavery politics by... Killing 5 proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas
The Sumner-Brooks affair revealed... That violent disagreements about slavery were being felt in the halls of Congress
The election of 1856 was most noteworthy for... The dramatic rise of the Republican party
In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that... Congress couldn't prevent slavery in the territories because slaves were private property
The panic of 1857 encouraged the South to believe that... Its economy was fundamentally stronger than that of the North
A key issue in the Lincoln-Douglas debates was... Whether the people of a territory could prohibit slavery in light of the Dred Scott decision
Southerners were particularly enraged by the John Brown affair because... They believed Brown's violent abolitionist sentiments were shared by the whole North
In the campaign of 1860, the Democratic Party... Split in two, with each faction nominating its own presidential candidate
During the campaign of 1860, Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party... Opposed the expansion of slavery but made no statements threatening to abolish slavery in the South
What had happened in the South within two months of Lincoln's election? 7 southern states had seceded and formed the Confederate States of America
Lincoln rejected the proposed Crittenden Compromise because... It permitted the further extension north of the line of 36 30'
A powerful, personal novel that altered the course of American politics Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book by a southern writer that argued that slavery especially oppressed poor whites The Impending Crisis of the South
Rifles paid for by New England abolitionists and brought to Kansas by anti-slavery pioneers Beecher's Bibles
Term that described the prairie territory where a small-scale civil war erupted in 1856 "Bleeding Kansas"
Tricky proslavery document designed to bring Kansas into the Union but blocked by Stephen A. Douglas Lecompton Constitution
Anti-immigrant party headed by former President Fillmore that competed with Republicans and Democrats in the election of 1856 Know-Nothing Party
Controversial Supreme Court ruling that blacks had no civil or human rights and that that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories Dred Scott
Sharp economic decline that increased northern demands for a high tariff and convinced southerners that the North was economically vulnerable Panic of 1857
Thoughtful political discussions during an Illinois Senate campaign that sharply defined national issues concerning slavery Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Newly formed middle-of-the-road party of elderly politicians that sought compromise in 1860, but carried only 3 border states Constitutional Union Party
First state to secede from the Union in December 1860 South Carolina
A new nation that proclaimed its independence in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861 Confederate States of America
A last-ditch plan to save the Union by providing guarantees for slavery in the territories Crittenden Compromise
Four-way race for the presidency that resulted in the election of a sectional minority president Election of 1860
Period between Lincoln's election and his inauguration, during which the ineffectual President Buchanan remained in office "Lame Duck" Period
Southern congressman whose bloody attack on a northern senator fueled sectional hatred Preston Brooks
Leading northern Democrat whose presidential hopes fell victim to the conflict over slavery Stephen A. Douglas
Black slave whose unsuccessful attempt to win his freedom deepened the sectional controversy Dred Scott
Former United States senator who in 1861 became the president of what called itself a new nation Jefferson Davis
"The little woman who wrote the book that made this great war" (the Civil War) Harriet Beecher Stowe
Fanatical and bloody-minded abolitionist martyr admired in the North and hated in the South John Brown
Southern-born author whose book attacking slavery's effects on whites aroused northern opinion Hinton R. Helper
Scene of militant abolitionist John Brown's massacre of proslavery men in 1856 Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas
Site where seven seceding states united to declare their independence from the United States Montgomery, Alabama
Romantic western hero and the first Republican candidate for president John C. Fremont
Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him Charles Sumner
Site of a federal arsenal where a militant abolitionist attempted to start a slave rebellion Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Buchanan's VP, nominated for president by breakaway southern Democrats in 1860 John C. Breckenridge
Weak Democratic president whose manipulation by proslavery forces divided his own party James Buchanan
Abolitionist group that sent settlers and "Beecher's Bibles" to oppose slavery in Kansas New England Emigrant Aid Company
Cause: Uncle Tom's Cabin Effect: Persuaded millions of northerners and Europeans that slavery was evil and should be eliminated
Cause: The exercise of popular sovereignty in Kansas Effect: Led to a "mini" prairie civil war between proslavery and antislavery factions
Cause: Buchanan's support for the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution Effect: Offended Senator Douglas and divided the Democratic party
Cause: The Dred Scott case Effect: Infuriated Republicans and made them determined to defy the Supreme Court
Cause: The 1858 Illinois senate race Effect: Made Lincoln a leading national Republican figure and hurt Douglas's presidential chances
Cause: John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry Effect: Convinced southerners that the North generally supported murder and slave rebellion
Cause: The splitting of the Democratic party in 1860 Effect: Shattered one of the last links between the sections and almost guaranteed Lincoln's victory in 1860
Cause: The election of Lincoln as president Effect: Moved South Carolina to declare immediate secession from the Union
Cause: The "lame duck" period and Buchanan's indecisiveness Effect: Paralyzed the North while southern secessionist movement gained movement
Cause: Lincoln's rejection of the Crittenden Compromise Effect: Ended the last hopes of a peaceable sectional settlement and an end to secession
Lincoln's plan for the besieged federal forces in Fort Sumter was... To provision the garrison but not to reinforce it
The firing on Fort Sumter had the effect of... Arousing Northern support for a war to put down the South's "rebellion"
Among the states that joined the Confederacy only after Lincoln's call for troops were... Virginia, Arkansas, and Tennessee
Lincoln at first declared that the war was being fought for what reason? Only to save the Union and not to free the slaves
True or false: Oklahoma was considered a border state. False
The term "Butternut region" refers to... The areas of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois that opposed an antislavery war
In the Indian Territory (Oklahoma), most of the "Five Civilized Tribes" supported what side of the war? Confederacy
Among the potential advantages the Confederacy possessed at the beginning of the Civil War was... Better-trained officers and soldiers
Among the potential advantages the Union possessed at the beginning of the Civil War was... A continuing influx of immigrant manpower from Europe
The response to the Civil War in Europe was... Support for the South among the upper classes and for the North among the working classes
The South's weapon of "King Cotton" failed to draw Britain into the war on the side of the Confederacy because... The British found sufficient cotton from previous stockpiles and from other sources like Egypt and India
The success of the Confederate raider Alabama highlighted the issue of... Britain's un-neutral policy of allowing Confederate ships to be built in its naval yards
Lincoln argued that his assertion of executive power and suspension of certain civil liberties was justified because... It was necessary to set aside small provisions of the Constitution in order to save the Union
Many of the new millionaires who emerged in the North during the Civil War made their fortunes by... Providing poorly made "shoddy" goods to the Union armies
Women made particular advances during the Civil War by... Entering industrial employment and providing medical aid for soldiers on both sides
Four border states where secession failed but slavery still survived Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware
The effective Northern effort to strangle the Southern economy and de-throne "King Cotton" Blockade
A ship from which two Confederate diplomats were removed, creating a major crisis between London and Washington Trent
Vessel built in Britain that wreaked havoc on Northern shipping until it was finally sunk in 1864 Alabama
Ironclad warships that were kept out of Confederate hands by Minister Adams's stern protests to the British government Laird rams
Provision established by Congress in 1863, after volunteers ran out, that provoked violent protests in Northern cities Draft
Slippery Northern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union army and then deserted "Bounty jumpers"
Medical occupation that gained new status and employment opportunities because of women's Civil War service Nurse
Financial arrangement set up by the federal government to sell government bonds and stabilize the currency National Banking System
Scornful term for Northern manufacturers who made quick fortunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the US Army "Shoddy millionaires"
Civil liberty that was suspended by Lincoln in defiance of the Constitution and the Supreme Court's chief justice Writ of habeas corpus
Organization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armies in the field United States Sanitary Commission
American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War Charles Francis Adams
An Old World aristocrat, manipulated as a puppet in Mexico, who was shot when his puppet-master deserted him Maximilian
An inexperienced leader in war but a genius at inspiring and directing his nation's cause Abraham Lincoln
Leader whose conflict with states' rights advocates and rigid personality harmed his ability to mobilize and direct his nation's war effort Jefferson Davis
Nation whose upper classes hoped for a Confederate victory, while its working classes sympathized with the antislavery North Britain
Slippery French dictator who ignored the Monroe Doctrine by intervening in Mexican politics Napoleon III
Site of cross-border raids and plots by Southern agents and anti-British Americans during the Civil War Canada
Helped transform nursing into a respected profession during the Civil War Clara Barton
Scene of the largest Northern antidraft riot in 1863 New York City
First woman physician, organizer of the United States Sanitary Commission Elizabeth Blackwell
Cause: South Carolina's assault on Fort Sumter Effect: United the North and made it determined to preserve the Union by military force
Cause: Lincoln's first call for troops to suppress the "rebellion" Effect: Caused 4 more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy
Cause: Lincoln's careful use of moral suasion, politics, and military force Effect: Kept the Border States in the Union
Cause: The large Northern human-resources advantage Effect: Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, even at the cost of many lives
Cause: The North's naval blockade and industrial superiority Effect: Eventually gave the Union a crucial economic advantage over the mostly agricultural South
Cause: The British aristocracy's sympathy with the South Effect: Led the British government toward actions that aided the Confederacy and angered the Union
Cause: American minister C.F. Adams's diplomacy Effect: Deterred the British and French from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy
Cause: Grant's victory at Vicksburg Effect: Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia
Cause: The class-biased unfairness of the Civil War draft Effect: Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish Americans
Cause: Lincoln's belief that the Civil War emergency required drastic action Effect: Led to temporary infringements on civil liberties and Congress's constitutional powers
One effect of the first Battle of Bull Run was... To increase the South's already dangerous overconfidence
The primary weakness of General George McClellan as a military commander was... His excessive caution and reluctance to use his troops in battle
After the unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign, Lincoln and the Union turned to... A new strategy based on "total war" against the Confederacy
The Union blockade of Confederate ports was... Initially leaky but eventually effective
Antietam was one of the crucial battles of the Civil War because... It was the last chance for the Confederates to win a major battle
Officially, the Emancipation Proclamation freed only... Slaves under control of the rebellious Confederate States
The political effects of the Emancipation Proclamation were... To strengthen the North's moral cause but weaken the Lincoln administration in the Border States and parts of the North
The thousands of black soldiers in the Union Army... Added a powerful new weapon to the antislavery dimension of the Union cause
Lee's goals in invading the North in the summer of 1863 were... To deflect attention from "Stonewall" Jackson's movements against Washington
Grant's capture of Vicksburg was especially important because... It quelled Northern peace agitation and cut off the Confederate trade route across the Mississippi
The "Copperheads" were... Democrats who backed the Union but opposed a war against slavery
Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's VP running mate in 1864, was what party? A War Democrat
Lincoln's election victory in 1864 was sealed by Union military successes at... Mobile, Atlanta, and the Shenandoah Valley
Sherman's march "from Atlanta to the sea" was especially notable for... Its brutal use of "total war" tactics of destruction and pillaging against Southern civilian populations
As the Democratic party nominee in 1864, General George McClellan... Repudiated the Copperhead platform that called for a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington Battle of Bull Run
McClellan's disastrously unsuccessful attempt to end the war quickly by a back-door conquest of Richmond Peninsula Campaign
Key battle of 1862 that forestalled European intervention to aid the Confederacy and led to the Emancipation Proclamation Battle of Antietam
Document that proclaimed a war against slavery and guaranteed a fight to the finish Emancipation Proclamation
General US Grant's nickname, taken from his military demand to the enemy at Fort Donelson and elsewhere "Unconditional Surrender"
Crucial Confederate fortress on the Mississippi whose fall to Grant in 1863 cut the South in two Vicksburg
Pennsylvania battle that ended Lee's last hopes of achieving victory through an invasion of the North Gettysburg
Mississippi site where black soldiers were massacred after their surrender Fort Pillow
Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South Copperheads
Edward Everett Hale's story of treason and banishment, inspired by the wartime banishing of Copperhead Clement Vallandigham The Man Without a Country
Georgia city captured and burned by Sherman just before the election of 1864 Atlanta
The temporary 1864 coalition of Republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election Union Party
Washington site where Lincoln was assassinated by Booth on April 14, 1865 Ford's Theater
Virginia site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865 Appomattox Courthouse
Romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat "The Lost Cause"
Daring Southern commander killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville "Stonewall" Jackson
Southern officer whose failed charge at Gettysburg marked "the high water mark of the Confederacy" George Pickett
Ruthless Northern general who waged a march through Georgia William T. Sherman
Fortress whose capture split the Confederacy in two Vicksburg
Site where Lee's last major invasion of the North was turned back Gettysburg
Gentlemanly top commander of the Confederate army Robert E. Lee
Site of one of Grant's bloody battles with the Confederates near Richmond in 1864 The Wilderness
Crucial battle in Maryland that staved off European recognition of the Confederacy Antietam
Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864 Salmon P. Chase
Fanatical actor whose act of violence actually harmed the South John Wilkes Booth
Union commander who first made his mark with victories in the West Ulysses S. Grant
Southern War Democrat who ran as Lincoln's "Union party" VP candidate in 1864 Andrew Johnson
Notorious Copperhead, convicted of treason, who ran for governor of Ohio while exiled to Canada Clement Vallandigham
Union general who repudiated his party's Copperhead platform and polled 45% of the popular vote in 1864 George McClellan
Site of Union defeat in very early battle of the war Bull Run
Cause: Political dissent by Copperheads and jealous Republicans Effect: Made it difficult for Lincoln to prosecute the war effectively
Cause: A series of Union military victories in late 1864 Effect: Ensured Lincoln's reelection and ended the South's last hope of achieving independence by political means
Cause: The assassination of Lincoln Effect: Deprived the nation of experienced leadership during Reconstruction
Cause: Grant's Tennessee and Mississippi River campaigns Effect: Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia
Cause: The Battle of Bull Run Effect: Led some southerners to believe they would win an easy victory
Cause: The Battle of Antietam Effect: Enabled Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation and blocked British and French intervention
Cause: The Battle of Gettysburg Effect: Ended the South's effort to win the war by aggressive invasion
Cause: Grant's final brutal campaign in Virginia Effect: Forced Lee to surrender at Appomattox
Cause: The Emancipation Proclamation Effect: Guaranteed that the South would fight to the end to try to save slavery
Cause: The growing Union manpower shortage in 1863 Effect: Helped lead to the enlistment of black fighting men in the Union Army
Created by: ejustice75