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History(The plantations in Ireland)

Who was the Lord of Ireland? The king of England(In reality he had little control over Ireland)
Ireland was divided into three area,what were these areas? The Pale, the Anglo-Irish lordships and the Gaelic-Irish lordships
What was the Pale? The area of Ireland that stretched from Dundalk to Dalkey. The only area in Ireland where the kings officials had power. People here spoke English and followed common law.
Why was a six food high barrier built around the Pale? Gaelic clans often raided the Pale for cattle, the barrier was put in place to keep them out
Who were the Anglo-Irish lordships? Areas of Ireland controlled by descendants of original Norman invaders of the 12th century. They were loyal to the king of England. By the 16th century they were fully independent of the English crown. They followed Brehon(Gaelic)law
Name the three most powerful Anglo-Irish lords Fizgeralds of Kildare. Butler of Ormand. Fitzgerald of Desmond
What were the Gaelic-Irish lordships? Areas under control of native Irish lords. The followed Brehon law. They did not recognize the king of England as the lord of Ireland. They had kingdoms called tuaths. Each tuath had its own chief or king known as a taioseach
Name the three most powerful Gaelic-Irish lorships O'Niels of Tyrone. O'Donnels of Donegal. O'Cathain of Ulster
talk about Brehon law The taioseach was elected by the derbhfire(royal family). The land was owned by a tribe or clan. The taoiseach was given land while he was taoiseach
Talk bout Common law Land and titles were passed from father to son. The lord owned the land. The king could confiscate land if the lord was disloyal to him
Who were the Tudors? The first of the English dynasty to try and conquer Ireland. It started with king Henry VIII's effrots
What was a plantation? When English would drive Irish people from their land and replace them with loyal English and Scottish settlers
What were the general reasons for the plantations? The English suspected that the Irish could not be trusted to remain loyal to England. Old Irish clans frequently rebelled against Enlgand
Who were the lords of Laois and offaly in the middle of the 16th century? and tell me a bit about them The O'Mores and the O'Connors. They often attacked the Pale for cattle, so Queen Mary sent her lord deputy with an army to conquer them. After their conquer their lands were confiscation and the plantation was put into action
What were the aims of the Laois and Offaly plantation? To protect the Pale. To impose English law in those areas. To control the native Irish
The land confiscated from the Laois and Offaly plantation was divided, into what sectors were they divided and what were they called? Laois-Queens county. Offaly-Kings county.(Towns established) Portlaoise-Maryborough. Daingean-Phillipstown
Why was the Laois and Offaly plantation a failure? Just over 80 planters were granted land,this was too small of a number. No planters came from England so Irish planters had to be used. The O'Connors and O'Mores were constantly attacking their confiscated land
The efforts to force English life and religion on the people of Munster resulted in 2 rebellions, when were theses rebellions and who led them? The 1560's and 1570's. They were led by James Fitzmaurice, the Earl of Desmond
After the first rebellion was defeated what did James Fitzmaurice do? He went to Europe to get assistance from other Catholic countries
When he returned from Europe he started a second rebellion,how did it go? The pope had promised 600 soldiers to help. James was defeated quickly and killed before the soldiers arrived.
What happened to the popes soldiers when they arrived? They arrived in Kerry,but were surrounded by the Queens forces and were killed as an example to others who may rebel
What the Munster plantation successful? Why,why not? No.Not enough undertakers came to Ireland.Very few English tenant farmers came to Ireland so undertakers had to rent land to Irish people.Irish people who had been driven off their lands attacked the new settlers in a rebellion called the 9 years war
What was the nine years war and when was it? When Ulster chiefs rebelled against Elizabeth policies. From 1594 - 1603
Who was the Leader of the rebellion?(nine years war) Hugh O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone. The Ulster armies defeated the armies that Elizabeth sent
Give an example of a war where English soldiers were defeated The battle of yellow ford, where 2000 English soldiers were defeated
In what battle where the O'Niels and O'Donnels defeated in? The Battle of Kinsale 1601
What was the treaty of Mellfort? When O'Neil made peace with the English in 1603
What was the Flight of the Earls? In 1607 when O'Neil and other chiefs fled Ireland,for Europe
After Queen Elizabeth died who came to thrown? King James I
What did King James I do? He declared the men who had fled in the flight of the Earls traitors and confiscated their land(Donegal,Derry,Cavan,Tyrone,Fermanagh and Armagh
The land confiscated by King James I was divided into two parts, what were these parts? Crown land and Church land
What was church land? Land given to the church of Ireland of Trinity Collage Dublin
What was Crown land? Land used for plantation and towns and schools
Why did king James I want plantations? To create a loyal protestant population. To gain money for the crown.To pay soldiers and officials who fought in the nine years war
Who got the land? Undertakers(English or Scottish protestant gentlemen who were given estates of 2000-1000 acres of land for a small annual rent)Servitors(king officials or soldiers during the 9 years war)
How successful was the Ulster plantation? More successful than the Laois and Offaly and the Musnter. It increased the influence of the Enlish language and farming methods. It ensured a loyal population and it spread Protestanisim
What was the Cromwellian plantation? The last plantation and was carried out by Oliver Cromwell
How successful was the Cromwellian plantation? It failed to crush Catholisim but it had an effect on catholic landowners. For the next 200 year the power in Ireland remained in the hands of protestants
What were some of the results of the Cromwellian plantation? New farming methods were established. Penal laws were introduced to keep catholics under control.Catholics couldnt keep weapons,by land,sit in parliament or vote
Created by: Chimozukee
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