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A New Nation

Federalist period in American History

QuestionAnswer
Who was the country's first president? George Washington. He served 2 terms from 1789-1796.
Which Departments of State did George Washington create to make the first cabinet? Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury and the Secretary of Defense (used to be called the Secretary of War).
What does the Secretary of State do? They help the president with foreign affairs (other countries).
What does the Secretary of the Treasury do? They help the president with the finances of the country (money)
What does the Secretary of Defense do? They help the president with the military and war.
Which branch of government did the Constitution not fully outline, so George Washington had to create the structure of that branch? The judicial branch.
What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do? The act set up the judicial system of lower courts and said the lower courts could appeal cases to the Supreme Court.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had different ideas about what? How the country should be run.
The differences between Hamilton and Jefferson eventually create what? The two main political parties in our country.
Which person favored a strong central government run by the rich and commerce (buying/selling)? Alexander Hamilton
Which person favored a strong state/local government run by popular vote and farming/trading? Thomas Jefferson
Which people were Federalists? George Washington, Sam Adams, Alexander Hamilton.
Who created our National Bank, to handle the finances (tax money, debts, payment) of our country? Alexander Hamilton
How did the government plan on paying back our loan from France during the American Revolution? Have the government pay back 2/3 and the people pay back 1/3.
Who did not like Hamilton's plan to pay back the debt to France and why? The South because they had already paid back some of their debt to the government so they didn't think it was fair.
How did George Washington get the South to agree with Hamilton's plan to pay back our debt to France? Move the country's capital city from New York City to Maryland, so the capital would be closer to the southern states.
Who began the design of our country's capitol building in Washington DC? Who replaced him? Pierre L'Enfant was the French engineer who designed the capitol. He was replaced by Andrew Ellicott.
What caused the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794? Congress created an excise tax on whiskey, which raised its cost to produce. That made farmers mad.
What is the result of the Whiskey Rebellion? Farmers were rebelling, the militia had to be called in to break it up.
How did this rebellion help establish the new government in our country? Let Americans know that laws created by Congress would be enforced, even in the frontier.
Why did John Jay have to sign a treaty with Britain about in 1794? For the British to remove their forts in our Northwest Territory.
What did John Jay's Treaty fail to do for our country? Establish neutral shipping rights in the Caribbean.
What did Thomas Pickney's Treaty of 1795 have to do with? It was a treaty with Spain that allowed Americans to trade in New Orleans and Spain gave up their land east of the Mississippi River.
When and where was the French Revolution? 1789-late 1790's in France
What started the revolution in France? The country was losing money so it raised taxes on the poor, who were already starving from bad harvests.
Who were the Jacobins? Extreme french revolutionaries who attacked the royal residence and arrested the King and Queen of France.
Who were the King and Queen of France during the French Revolution? King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.
What happened to the king and queen at the end of the revolution? They were sent to the guillotine in 1793.
Who took the place of the King and Queen of France after the French Revolution? Napoleon Bonaparte
What part did the United States have in the French Revolution? The French had loaned us a lot of money to help our American Revolution and that made the country of France poor.
Did the Americans want to help the revolutionaries in France? Yes, some of them did because we had a treaty with France starting in 1778 and we wanted to honor that treaty.
How did Alexander Hamilton feel about the French Revolution? The French were starting to go after the British king too, so Hamilton supported the British not the French.
What did our president, George Washington do about the French Revolution? Why? Nothing, he took a position of neutrality and said he wouldn't support France or Britain. As a new nation, we couldn't afford to go back to war and if Britain won, we could risk becoming part of Britain again.
Why did Thomas Jefferson resign as Secretary of State in 1793? Many people were mad at him because he supported the French in the French Revolution.
Who became president after George Washington? John Adams
What type of government did John Adams favor? Federalist
Who was John Adams Vice President, why? Thomas Jefferson, due to the number of electoral votes he got. The Constitution said that the runner-up in Electoral votes gets to be Vice President.It doesn't take into account political parties because they were not created yet.
How does the election of 1796 begin the idea of sectionalism in our country? The South supported Jefferson, the North supported Adams because each thought the candidate they supported would help their part of the country.
How did the XYZ Affair of 1798 get its name? From three low French officials that Adams called XYZ (instead of using their names).
What did the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 have to do with? residency requirements and punishments for speaking out against the government.
Which Amendment did the Alien and Sedition Acts violate? The First Amendment
Who were the "midnight judges"? The judges that John Adams put into office just before he left office after Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801.
What is the Supreme Court case of Marbury vs. Madison (1803)? Marbury was one of the midnight judges that didn't get his papers before Adams left office. He still wanted to be a Supreme Court Judge but he was not allowed.
Who won the election of 1800? Thomas Jefferson
Who was the candidate that was defeated in the election of 1800? John Adams
Who had an equal number of electoral votes as Jefferson, causing the House of Representatives to have to vote? Aaron Burrs
What did Jefferson want to do in the government? Cut spending and open up free trade.
What was the Louisiana Purchase of 1803? A land purchase made from France during Jefferson's presidency that doubled the size of our country.
Who did Jefferson send to explore this new area of our country? Meriwether Lewis William Clark.
What cultural feature was created due to the new size of our country? The Cumberland Road or National Road which connected Cumberland Maryland to the Ohio River. Work began in 1811. It is the only road to be built using only government money.
Where did Lewis and Clark leave from in May of 1804? St. Louis, Missouri
How far did they travel? 8,000 miles from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean and back again.
Who helped them as a guide and interpreter? The Shoshone woman, Sacajawea
Who else accompanied Lewis and Clark on their exploration? soldiers, Sacajawea's husband and child, hunters/trappers, river boat men and others.
What is impressment? When the British captured American ships they would force the sailors to serve on British ships.
What is sectionalism? Placing the interests of one region over those of the nation.
What is an alliance? A pact or friendship between two parties for the mutual benefit of both.
What is a tariff? An import tax on goods.
What is an excise tax? A tax on a product's sale and distribution.
What is revenue? Income of the government from taxes.
What is a pioneer? The first people to enter a new region.
What is the frontier? The edge of a settlement.
What is an expedition? A journey taken by a group of people with a definite plan in mind of where they want to go and what they want to find.
Why did the Congress have the Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798 expire on March 4, 1800 (the inauguration date of the new president)? If the new president was from the Democratic-Republican party, they could punish all the Federalist printers and publishers that criticized them, turning the tables on the Federalists.
Why was the United States able to make the Louisiana Purchase from France? France needed money because they had been fighting Britain for many years and the country was bankrupt, Napoleon sold the land to get the money his country needed.
What did the XYZ Affair accomplish? It prompted Congress to create a navy, it showed that a president (Adams) could solve problems with diplomacy (talking) and it showed that we were a nation that should be taken seriously.
How did philosophy influence the French Revolution? Just like John Locke's ideas influenced our ideas of freedom, Jean Jacques Rousseau's and Voltaire's ideas lead the poor French to believe they deserved freedom too.
Created by: mdavis