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APUSH Winter Final

December 20

QuestionAnswer
True or false: The colonists cherished the ideal of opposition to slavery as synonymous with American life. False
The most likely first Americans were... People who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America
The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was... Maize
One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was the... Absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America
Name 4 reasons Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia. Break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia; reduce the price of goods from Asia; gain more profits for themselves; reduce the time it took to transport goods
Before the middle of the 15th century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because... Sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible
In the last half of the 15th century, some 40,000 Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to... Establish plantations in South America
After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had... Sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies
Name 4 New World plants that revolutionized the international economy. Corn, potatoes, beans, tomatoes
Why did European contact with Native Americans lead to the death of millions of Native Americans? They had little resistance to European diseases
The Aztec chief Montezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan because... Montezuma believed that Cortes with the God of Quetzalcoatl
The false concept which held that the Spanish conquerors merely tortured and butch the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind Black Legend
The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most consequential for the future of the United States was... Jamestown
Spain's dreams of an empire began to fade with the... Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The first English attempt at colonization in 1585 was in... Jamestown
What helped to ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic? England's defeat of the Spanish Armada
The _________ decreed that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates. Laws of Primogeniture
The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by... Joint Stock Company
True or false: Need for a place to exploit slave labor was a motive for English colonization. False.
The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by... Starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids
Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can best be described as... Saving the colony from collapse
When Lord De La Warr took control of Jamestown in 1610, he... Imposed a harsh military regime on the colony
A peace settlement ended the first Anglo-Powhatan war in 1614 by the... Marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist John Rolfe
The result of the second Anglo-Powhatan war in 1644 can best be described as... Ending any chance of assimilating the native peoples into Virginia society
The biggest disruptor of Native American life was... Disease
True or false: The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in the diversification of the colony's economy. False.
The summoning of Virginia's House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it... Was the first of many miniature parliaments to flourish in America
Despite its problems, Maryland prospered, and like Virginia it... Depended for labor in its early years mainly on white indentured servants
In 1694, Maryland's Act of Toleration... Guaranteed toleration to all Christians
Under the Barbados slave code, slaves were... Denied the most fundamental rights
Why did the colony of South Carolina prosper? By developing close economic ties with the British West Indies
Two major exports of the Carolinas were... Rice and Indian slaves
North Carolina and Rhode Island were similar in that they... Were two of the most democratic colonies
The colony of Georgia was founded... As a defensive buffer for the valuable Carolinas
Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similar in that they were all... Economically dependent on the export of a staple crop
In Puritan doctrine, the "elect" were also referred to as... Visible Saints
The Mayflower Compact can best be described as a... Promising step toward self-government
Unlike Separatists, the Puritans... Remained members of the Church of England
Puritan doctrine included acceptance of... The idea of a covenant with God
Puritan religious beliefs allowed all of the following except... Challenging religious authority
As a colony, Rhode Island became known for... Individualist and independent attitudes
King Phillips' War resulted in... The lasting defeat of New England's Indians
An organization designed to booster defense against Native Americans New England Confederation
What was the result of England's Glorious Revolution in the New World? The Dominion of the New World collapsed
Who originally founded New York? Dutch
One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was... Their refusal to do military service
In the 17th century, due to a high death rate, families were both few and fragile in... Chesapeake colonies
The headright system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of... Giving the right to acquire 50 acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer
17th century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by... Growing more tobacco to increase their volume of production
Throughout the greater part of the 17th century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most of the labor they needed from... White servants
True or false: Over the course of the 17th century, circumstances improved for most indentured servants. False. Most indentured servants faced increasingly harsh circumstances.
Bacon's rebellion was supported mainly by... Young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land
What was the main result of Bacon's Rebellion? Planters began to look for less troublesome workers (moved to slaves instead of white indentured servants)
Compared to indentured servants, African American slaves were... A more manageable labor force
King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England because he... Realized that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they could defy him as their politcal leader.
What was a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the 18th century? A momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country
The Scots-Irish could best be described as... Pugnacious, lawless, and individualistic
By 1775, the ______ were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America. Africans
True or false: The population of the 13 American colonies was perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominantly Anglo-Saxon. True
True or false: The riches created by the growing slave popuation in the American south were distributed evenly among whites. False
The leading industry in the American colonies was... Agriculture
The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry involved the trading of ____ for________. Rum; African slaves
One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the... Growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain
True or false: Transportation in colonial Amreica was fast only on the waterways. True
True or false: Colonial American tavernswere frequented mainly by the lower class. False. People from all segments of society went to taverns.
In 1775, the _______ and _______ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America. Congregational, Anglican
The Great Awakening: a) Undermined the prestige of the clergy in the colonies b) Split colonial churches into several denominations c) Led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth & Rutgers d) Was the first spontaneous movement by Americans e) All of these e) All of these
The person most often called the "first civilized American" was... Benjamin Franklin
Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because... Colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries
The one valuable resource in New France was... Beavers
New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned ________ to France in 1748. Louisbourg
The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the... Use of primitive guerrilla warfare
The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to... Achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat
True or false: The 1759 Battle of Quebec ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history. True
What happened in the peace arrangements that ended the Seven Years' War? France surrendered all its territorial claims to North America.
For the American colonies, what was the most significant result of the Seven Years' War? It ended the myth of British invincibility.
The Proclaimation of 1763 was designed mainly to... Work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem
Change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved... Compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire
The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on... A willingness to subordinate private interests to the common good
Not one of the original 13 colonies EXCEPT ______ was formally planted by the British government. Georgia
True or false: Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible. False. They were to stay in economic adolescence indefinitely.
True or false: Before 1763, the Navigation Laws were strictly enforced in the American colonies. False. They were only loosely enforced.
Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because... It kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence
True or false: As a result of the mercantile system, the British allowed the American colonists to freely trade with other countries and compete on the open market. False. This was not allowed.
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the... Sugar Act
The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to... Raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense
What did the passage of the Sugar and Stamp Acts cause the colonists to believe? The British were trying to take away their historic liberty.
Virtual representation meant that... Every member of Parliament represented all British subjects.
As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts... British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order
The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because... It kept alive the principle ofparliamentary taxation
How did the local committees of correspondence organizaed by Samuel Adams keep opposition to the British alive? Through secret exchange of propoganda
True or false: The Quebec Act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it denied the French the right to retain many of their old customs. False. They were allowed to keep their customs.
The First Continental Congress was called in order to... Consider ways of redressing colonial grievances
As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of... Overwhelming national wealth and naval power
As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of... Many outstanding civilian and military leaders
True or false: One weakness the colonists faced in the War of Independence was the use of numerous European officers. False. This was true, but it wasn't a weakness.
Who did African Americans fight for in the Revolutionary War? Both the Americans and the British
True or false: Only a select minority of colonists supported American independence with selfless devotion. True
True or false: When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, there was a well-defined sentiment for independence. False. There was no well-defined sentiment.
King George III officially declared the colonies in rebellion just after... The Battle of Bunker Hill
What did the Olive Branch Petition say? It professed American loyalty to the crown.
The colonists' __________ in 1775 contradicted the American claim that they were only fighting defensively. Invasion of Canada
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was... To explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted
Thomas Paine's pamphlet, "Common Sense," called for... American independence and the creation of a democratic republic
Most Americans considered what to be fundamental for any successful republican government? Civic virtue (voting, etc.)
Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled _______ or ______, and the independence-seeking Patriots were also known as _____. Loyalists; Tories; Whigs
True or false: The Americans who continued to support the crown after independence had been declared were more likely to be from New England. False. They were less likely to be from New England
The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to... Isolate New England
The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for the Americans because it... Brought the colonists much-needed aid and a formal alliance with France
France came to America's aid in the Revolution because... It wanted revenge against the British
Some Indian nations joined the British during the Revolutionary War because... They believed a British victory would restrain American expansion into the West
How long did fighting continue in the American Revolution after the British defeat at Yorktown? More than a year
In May 1775, a tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured the British garrisons at Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point in upper New York. What did the Americans secure as a result of this victory? A priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston
Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when... General Benedict Arnold turned traitor
Britain gave America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris because British leaders... Were trying to persuade America to abandon its alliance with France
The Founders failed to eliminate slavery because... A fight over slavery might destroy national unity
The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to... Enforce a tax-collection program
Shays' Rebellion was provoked by... Foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers
Shays' Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for... A stronger central government
The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how to.. Reconcile states' rights with strong national government
The Constitutional Convention was called to... Revise the Articles of Confederation
The large-state plan, put forward in the Constitutional Convention, based representation in the ______ on ________ Both the House and Senate; population
The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention worked out an acceptable scheme for... Apportioning congressional representation
Under the Constitution, the president of the United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the... Electoral College
The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the... Three-fifths compromise
The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the... House of Representatives
The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on... The consent of the governed
Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the... Absence of a bill of rights
True or false: The new Constitution provided for the creation of a cabinet. False
Who was the first Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
Who was the first Secretary of the Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
Who was the first Secretary of War? Henry Knox
Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court? John Jay
One of the major criticisms of the Constitution, as drafted in Philadelphia, was that it... Did not provide guarantees for individual rights
True or false: The right to vote for all citizens is not guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. True. It was added later.
The _______ amendment might rightly be called the states' rights amendment. Tenth
Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the US favored what group? The wealthier class
True or false: In Alexander Hamilton's economic program, he included the payment of only domestic debts, not foreign debts. False
Alexander believed that a limited national debt... Was beneficial, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success
Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was based on... The "necessary and proper" or "elastic" clause of the Constitution
Jefferson's argument against the constitutionality of a Bank of the United States was based on the strict construction principles, especially embodied in... The Tenth Amendment in the Bill of Rights
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government... Levied an excise tax on whiskey
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in... The formation of permanent political parties
When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American government... Remained neutral
What did Washington's Farewell Address in 1796 say? It warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances
The Federalist-dominated Congress' Alien Act was aimed at ______ , whereas the Sedition Act was primarily aimed at ______. Recent immigrants; newspapers
True or false: The Sedition Act threatened First Amendment freedoms. True
True or false: Hamiltonian Federalists advocated a strong central government. True
One of the first lessons learned by the Jeffersonians after their victory in the 1800 presidential election was... That it is easier to condemn from the stump than to govern consistently
In the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because... Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson's "Revolution of 1800" was remarkable in that it... Marked the peaceful and orderly transfer of power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties
True or false: Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include the establishment of a strong army. False
Thomas Jefferson's presidency was characterized by his... Moderation in the administration of public policy
When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president... Left practically all of them intact
As chief justice of the United Sates, John Marshall helped to ensure that... The political and economic systems were based on a strong central government
The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the question of who had the right to... Determine the meaning of the Constitution
John Marshall, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by... Asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation
Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because they... Could not march inland and endanger liberties
Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the... Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the US
True or false: Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because he was afraid that the Spanish might seize Louisiana in a new war. False
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because... He believed that the purchase was unconstitutional
To deal with British and French violations of America's neutrality, Thomas Jefferson... Enacted an economic embargo
The war hawks demanded war with True or false: Britain because they wanted to retaliate for the British burning of Washington, DC. False
True or false: The American regular army's numbers were large enough that they did not have to rely on the militia during the War of 1812. False
The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of... New Orleans
The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for... A Constitutional amendment requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before war was declared
True or false: The Era of Good Feelings was a misnomer, because the period was a troubled one. True
One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was... Overspeculation in frontier lands
As a result of the Missouri Compromise... Slavery was banned north of the 36 30' line in the Louisiana Purchase territory
In interpreting the Constitution, John Marshall favored... Loose construction
Spain sold Florida to the United States because it... Could not defend the area and would lose it in any case
At the time it was issued, the Monroe Doctrine was... Incapable of being enforced by the United States
Andrew Jackson's military exploits were instrumental in the United States gaining... Possession of Florida from the Spanish
The so-called Era of Good Feelings was never entirely tranquil, but even the illusion of national consensus was shattered by... The Panic of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Andrew Jackson's Democratic political philosophy was based on his... Suspicion of the federal government
True or false: The new two-party system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s became an important part of the nation's checks and balances. True
True or false: The presidential election of 1824 was the first one to see the election of a minority president. True
John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed ______ to become _______. Henry Clay; secretary of state
True or false: As president, John Quincy Adams was one of the least successful presidents in American history. True
The purpose behind the spoils system was to... Reward political supporters with public office
The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in... The appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs
The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was... The South
The Force Bill of 1833 provided that the... President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties
Andrew Jackson's administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because... Whites wanted the Indians' lands
The South Carolina state legislature, after the election of 1832... Declared the existing tariff null and void in South Carolina
The nullification crisis of 1832-1833 erupted over... Tariff policy
The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to... American suspicion of secret societies
The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was... Forced removal
Andrew Jackson's veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United states was important because it was... A major expansion of presidential power
Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and annex the new Texas Republic because... Antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery
True or false: Government regulation of all major economic activity gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early 19th century America. False. This didn't happen.
Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was produced by... Free labor
What did the cult of domesticity do to women? It glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers.
True or false: The dramatic growth rate of American cities between 1800 and 1860 resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities. True
The overwhelming events for Ireland in the 1840s that led to massive immigration was... The rebellion against British rule and the potato famine
The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called... Nativism
Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the... Cotton gin
As a result of the development of the cotton gin... Slavery revived and expanded
Most early railroads in the United States were built in the... North
In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South _______ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed ______; and the East _____ for the other two regions. Grew cotton; eastern factory workers; made machines and textiles
The underlying basis for modern mass production was... The use of interchangeable parts
The early factory system distributed its benefits... Mostly to the owners
One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early 19th century was the belief that... Too much learning would injure women's brains and ruin their health
The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for... Its still primitive standards
As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin... Slavery was reinvigorated
What group dominated society and politics in the South? Planter aristocracy
True or false: One weakness of the slave plantation system was that its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers. False. This didn't happen.
Most slaves in the South were owned by... Plantation owners
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" was written by... Harriet Beecher Stowe
The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because... They couldn't afford the purchase price
Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of... Purchasing their way out of slavery
Northern attitudes toward free blacks could best be described as... Disliking the individuals but liking the race
True or false: For free blacks living in the North, discrimination was common. True
By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the... Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to... The immediate abolition of slavery in the South
The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to... Attract the vote of the states' rightists
The British-American dispute over the border of Maine was solved... By a compromise that gave each side some territory
One argument against annexing Texas to the US was that the annexation... Might give more power to the supporters of slavery
In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America was called... Manifest Destiny
In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay... Favored both the postponing and the annexation of Texas
In his quest for California, President James K. Polk... First advocated buying the area from Mexico
During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond to spot resolutions, indicated where American blood had been shed to provoke the war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by... Abraham Lincoln
The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that... Slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the US
Created by: ejustice75