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5015

Praxis II: 5015 terms

QuestionAnswer
Digraph A pair of characters used together to represent a single sound (phoneme). (e.g. “sh”)
Dipthong Going from one vowels to another without discernible difference.
Onset The consonant sound that comes before the first vowel in a syllable (e.g. “c” and “b” in “cabby” or the “sw” in “swim”). Not all words have onset (e.g. “eat”).
Rime The entire syllable excluding the onset (e.g. the “im” in “swim”).
Blend Weaving individual sounds together to produce a word (e.g. “t-o-p”).
Phonemes The smallest units of sound (e.g. the sounds associated with individual letters). (E.g. “Egg” has two phonemes — the sound for “e” and the sound for “gg”). (E.g. “Wish” has three phonemes — the sound for “w”, “i”, and “sh”).
Alphabetic Principle Each phoneme should have its own distinctive graphic representation.
Phonemic Awareness The awareness that individual letters have specific sounds associated with them- sounds make up words. (A child would soon learn that by breaking a word into letters and “sounding out” each letter, the overall word can be pronounced.)
Phonics The association of sounds with writing (either with letters or groups of letters — e.g. “ing”).
Phonological Awareness The awareness that words are made up of sounds. (and that these sounds can be taken individually or grouped together into units. E.g. phonemes vs syllables).
Emergent Literacy When a child uses books and writing materials to pretend to read/write, even though they do not actually know how to read/write.
Guided Reading The teacher gives the students a structure for and tells them the purpose of their reading, as well as a structure for how to respond to the text
Round-Robin Reading Students take turns reading from a book.
Echo Reading The teacher reads a line from a book and the students repeat it.
Choral Reading Students read aloud at the same time as the teacher.
Fill-in-the-Gap Reading Teachers read from a book and pauses occasionally to the have students chime in with the appropriate rhyming or predictable word.
Shared Reading Echo, choral, or fill-in-the-gap reading.
Decode Look at written text and “translate” it into spoken sounds.
Sight Words Words that a student recognizes on sight, rather than first having to sound them out.
Fluency How well a student is able to read something. (E.g. Are they slow readers who constantly have to slow down/stop to sound out words?)
Encode Take spoken sounds and “encode” them as written words.
Narrative Writing Writing that tells a story (e.g. has a plot). Has chronology (experiences time).
Descriptive Writing Writing that describes something to the senses (e.g. a description of a meadow). Designed to affect the reader’s emotions.
Persuasive Writing Writing that tries to convince the reader of something.
Expository Writing Writing that tries to inform the reader of something (e.g. giving directions to a house). It doesn’t care if the reader uses the information or has their minds changed, it’s just giving it to them.
Cloze Procedure Students fill in missing words based on context (e.g. fill-in-the-blank sentences).
Rubric A method of scoring work (e.g. an essay) using a numerical value (e.g. 1-5), where each value is associated with certain characteristics.
Formative Assessment Assessing a student’s understanding as you teach a unit (e.g. through homework, in-class activities, journal writing, etc.).
Cumulative Assessment Assessing a student’s understanding at the end of a unit (e.g. through a Unit Test).
Criterion-Referenced Test Students are tested to see how much of a subject (the criterion) they actually understand (as compared to a specific learning objective and not to other students).
Norm-Referenced Test Students are tested to see how much of a subject they understand as compared to other students in their age group.
Reciprocal Teaching The teacher models a concept. The students then form groups and take turns leading small-group discussions about the concept to each other.
Cooperative Teaching Teachers join together (cooperate) to teach a concept.
Scaffolded Instruction Teachers provide temporary support to a student who is not ready to perform a task independently. As the student gains confidence/skill, this support is slowly taken away until the student can function independently.
Modeling The teacher demonstrates how to do something, then has the student do it. (I.e. “I do it; I do it, you help; You do it, I help; You do it”) (I.e. “I do it; We do it; You do it.”)
Inquiry Teaching Students are encouraged to ask questions, and the teacher (rather than answering them) simply asks more questions
Think-Pair-Share The teacher asks a question, and the students think about it. Then they pair up to discuss their thoughts. Then they share their conclusions with the class.
Jigsaw Method Students leave a group and form a new group. Each of these new groups is given a topic to become an “expert” on. The students talk among themselves/ research to become experts. Students then return to their original group and teach the others
Wait Time By pausing (for about a minute) after asking a question, teachers will generate longer and more thoughtful answers from their students.
Auditory Learners Learn best through verbal instruction.
Visual Learners Learn best by seeing (e.g. reading a textbook, watching a demonstration).
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners Learn best by doing (e.g. hands-on activities).
Cooperative Learning Students are put in groups to complete a task/learn a concept
Bloom’s Taxonomy Learning is a process involving (in order): Knowledge - Comprehension - Application -Analysis - Synthesis - Evaluation
Peer-Tutor A student who understands a certain concept helps those who are struggling.
Cross-Age Tutor An older student helps a younger one
Divergent Thinking Students explore many possible solutions to a problem (e.g. brainstorming). This process is often creative and there is no one right answer.
Grand Conversation A conversation between all the students in a class directed by the students. The teacher observes but does not take part.
Constructivism learn by experience-seeing how they fit into view of world (assimilating) or by changing view of the world to fit with experiences (accommodating Learning is an individual process- motivated by the student. Teachers are facilitators
Story Boards A comic-strip-like sequence of boxes where each box depicts a scene from a story. Taken in order, the boxes represent the entire story
Concept Maps A diagram that shows relationships among concepts. It uses boxes for concepts and arrows to show how they connect to each other.
Venn Diagram A method of comparing and contrasting two (or more) things. Each circle represents one thing, and the characteristics of that thing go inside the circle. The overlapped parts of the circles represents overlapped characteristics.
Created by: Jsutton0
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