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afrs 154


racial make-up of the plantation white plantation owners, black slaves working on the plantation, mixed/ mulattos
know the status of each person ex. free or not free In Virginia, a law declared a person can be both Christian and enslaved. 3 years later, declared any non-Christian servant were subject to a life of enslavement (African American people were only people "traveling" to a new world)
One-drop rule any person with even one drop of African blood would have a legal status of African. Racial identity now defined by racist fears of poisoning white bloodline.
The Social Distinctions among Blacks 3 tier system: White, Creole, Blacks... Lighter skin works in the house, smarter... darker skin does grunt work outside
Education of bi-racial offspring Through slavery, masters would risk arrest by providing for the education of their mixed offspring or by arranging for them to escape when they were old enough
President Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings They began an affair. Jefferson used the word "mulatto" to describe her. Sally became pregnant allowing for her children to go North. Thomas Jefferson who wrote "all men are created equal" not only had slaves but fathered them
manitto what Indians called Black men
Social Clubs Mulatto sc included the Bon Ton society in Washington D.C. and the Blue Vein society where in order to get in, the blue veins on your wrist must be visible. They had access to high society places, but other Negroes thought of these clubs as ridiculous.
Bona Fide and its qualifications “Bona Fide” free people were Black people who were freed before the war and Emancipation Proclamation. They maintained hierarchy by creating the clubs.
Jack and Jill and Links Clubs social clubs today that have predominantly light skinned people and are more partial to light-skinned Blacks. mothers set up events for their children
Sugar Hill An exclusive neighborhood in Harlem that overlooks the “Valley”, where less fortunate residents live. It’s called Sugar because the people that lived there are known to have a sweet life.
AME The African Methodist Episcopal Church was the earliest church in America established exclusively for Negroes. 1793 in Philadelphia
CME The Colored Methodist Episcopal was formed by lighter-skinned worshipers after color was increasingly dividing people in the Black community. C now stands for Christian
Color Tests These included the paper-bag test, the door, and the comb test. These tests were used to determine the entrance of color-conscious churches and prestigious schools.
Historical Black Colleges A couple included Wilberforce in Ohio and Howard in Washington. The purpose of these schools was to groom mulattos in the genteel mores of the bourgeoisie and received a primarily liberal arts education.
Tuskegee Institute of Alabama Dark-skinned students were denied liberal arts education as many found it a waste to train students for paths of life that would be closed to them. Schools like the Tuskegee Institute of Alabama offered all Black students a strictly vocational curriculum.
Bethune-Cookman College Mary McLeod Bethune established the Bethune-Cookman College for dark-skinned girls to learn a curriculum of basic skills, including home economics, cooking, and housekeeping.
Color Tax At parties in college fraternities, there was often a “color tax”, where the darker a brother’s date, the higher the tax he had to pay at the door.
Black Businesses discriminated on basis of skin color as well. Mulattos created the Brown Fellowship Society so mulatto businesses could socialize. Dark-skinned businessmen created own organization called Free Dark Men. These enabled the Black community to stay separate.
Talented Tenth W.E.B. Dubois called on the Negro community to “produce a college educated class whose mission would be to serve and guide the progress of the masses”. 21 men and 2 women make up the talented tenth.
Marcus Garvey The apostle of pure Blackness, he had a “back to Africa” plan where he would transplant Afro-Americans in Liberia to force White Imperialists out of Africa. He believed pure Blackness meant a spotless morality, which outraged mulattos.
60's Protest movement the importance of skin color seemed to diminish… on the surface.
Prisons and Ghettos – there are a disproportionate number of dark-skinned people in these places.
What did house servants use as grease on their hair? House servants had access to lard, margarin, or butter but, field hands had to use shears instead of scissors and axle grease.
What was the “mammy-leg” cap? The leg of a woman’s stocking pulled over greased hair. This cap only worked so well until humid weather could bring it back to its natural state.
Sarah Breedlove – “Madame C.J. Walker” Invented a special scalp and hair-preparation formula. Four years after emancipation, Sarah was orphaned at 5 and married at 14. Her hair started falling out and this is when she created her formula that other Black women could benefit from.
4. A’Lelia P. Bundles Author of Madam C.J. Walker’s biography and also her great-great-granddaughter.
5. What was the name of her business? “Walker System Beauty Culture”
7. What was the secret formula? The ingredients consisted of primarily a mixture of petrolatum and sulphur.
8. How did one use the “hot comb”? The Walker hot comb could be heated either on a special burner that her agents sold separately, or on a regular stove. However, if the comb got too hot, the hair could easily burn.
9. Her main intention with her products She resented accusations that her products were intended to make Black women look White. Her primary concern was the Black woman who suffered from dry scalp and breakage. They were intended to beautify the Black woman,while giving her more confidence.
10. Guinness Book of World Records She marketed her merchandise so aggressively throughout the United States and Europe that in 1910 the Guinness Book of World Records indentified Madam Walker as the first self-made millionairess in history.
11. Black ministers and leaders controversy Black ministers and leaders protested the use of hair-straightening products. Preachers would say, If God wanted you to have straight hair, He would have given it to you.” A’Lelia Bundles, “I wonder how many of you are attracted to mulatto looks?”
12. Madam Annie M. Turnbo Malone Developed “pullers”, which flattened hair by pulling it. But many customers were dissatisfied with the slick, flattened appearance that the pullers created and considered Walker’s hot comb a vast improvement.
13. What did the Afro represent? It not only associated the wearer with the politics of the Black power movement, but, for women, it also signified the abandonment of the hair-straightening products they had been conditioned to use since childhood.
14. Naomi Sims The use of hair straighteners and dyes not considered just a White assimilation practice. Long before Parisian women of the 1920’s made straight hair fashionable, the Swahili women and the Hova of Madagascar straightened their hair with heavy oil.
Natural Color Substances Henna, Ocher, plant dyes
16. 19th century skin bleaching methods Lye, harsh acidic products made for removing dirt and grime from floors and walls. There were also homemade concoctions of lemon juice, bleach, or urine to smear on the skin and arsenic wafers to slwallow, all designed to “get the dark out”.
17. Present day skin bleaching products Ro-Zol. Such ads were clearly designed to tap both Black men’s and Black women’s insecurities about being dark.
18. Hydroquinone active ingredient in most over-the-counter skin-bleaching creams and a chemical whose melanin-inhibiting properties were discovered by accident. Black workers at a plant were exposed to this and experienced lightening of the skin on their hands and arms.
19. Chemical peels Chemical peels, which are extremely painful and require hospitalization, involve burning off the top layer of pigmentation to uncover the smoother, lighter layer underneath.
20. Dermabrasion painful, involves stripping away the uppermost layers of the skin with high-speed wire or diamond edged brushes. like “skinning your knee on a sidewalk”. skin can be removed too deeply and result in an open wound.deaths from cardiac arrest have followed”.
21. Barbara Walden The founder of Barbara Walden Cosmetics, is trying to change the “looking lighter is better” attitude with products designed to match the many shades of African American Women’s skin.
Blacker the Berry Wallace Thurman
The Bluest Eye Toni Morrison
Black Ugly Dream Maya Angelou
George Johnson Benefits from insecurity
Created by: emiallen