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History Exam

Vocabulary for the history exam

Magna Carta Means “Great Charter.” First example of limited government, signed by King John in 1215 A.D.
Northwest Ordinance Established in 1787 this ordinance set up a system for bringing new states into the U.S.
Constitution A set of basic principles and laws that state the powers & duties of government (limits government)
Rousseau Wrote the book called The Social Contract, which said governmentonly exists with the consent of the people
Suffrage The Right to Vote
Montesquieu This philosopher argued that government must have separate branches. e.g. Legislative, Executive, Judicial
Articles of Confederation G. This was the first constitution of the U.S.; it had many weaknesses and only a legislative branch of government
Land Ordinance of 1785 A system that set up the surveying and dividing up of lands in the Northwest Territories
John Locke Believed the idea that all people are born with the right to “life, liberty and property"
Ratification Official Approval
a document written by Thomas Jefferson,said that no person can be forced to attend a particular church or pay for a state church with tax money. A.Magna Carta B.Declaration of Independence C.Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom D.Articles of Confedera C
This is a tax on imports or exports A. Excise Tax B. Tariff C. Income Tax D. Consumption Tax B
This means trade between two or more states A. Inner-state trade B. National trade C. International trade D. Interstate trade D
This economic downturn is characterized by high inflation, high unemployment and negative economic growth A. Recession B. Depression C. Recovery D. Economic Chaos B
This is characterized by a devaluation of the currency A. Inflation B. Hibernation C. Depression D. Recovery A
a meeting held in 1787 in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation,the delegates decided to create a new document to govern the U.S. A.Declaration of Independence B.Olive Branch Petition D.Constitutional Convention D
Known as the father of the Constitution, he also wrote the Bill of Rights A. Thomas Jefferson B. George Mason C. DeWitt Clinton D. James Madison D
This compromise resolved the question of using slave populations for representation purposes A. Three-Fifths Compromise B. The Great Compromise C. The Conn. Compromise D. The Commerce Compromise A
This compromise resolved the issues over regulating interstate commerce and tariffs A. Three-Fifths Compromise B. The Great Compromise C. The Conn. Compromise D. The Commerce Compromise D
Popular Sovereignty is A. To fight for your right to party B. The right to be free C. The idea that political power rests with the people D. The idea that people have limited political power C
This is known as sharing of political power between the Federal and State governments, i.e. a dual system of government A. Federalism B. Constitutionalism C. Republicanism D. Democracy A
The term amendment means A. An official change B. An unofficial changes C. Only changes to the Article of Confederation D. Only changes to the Declaration of Independence A
These were people who opposed ratification of the Constitution A. Federalist B. Republicans C. Democrats D. Antifederalists D
These were people who supported ratification of the Constitution A. Federalist B. Republicans C. Democrats D. Antifederalists A
He was a leading Antifederalist A. Thomas Jefferson B. Alexander Hamilton C. George Mason D. James Madison C
TRUE OR FALSE Many Antifederalists did not want the Constitution to include a Bill of Rights F
TRUE OR FALSE Federalists were those who did not support the Constitution F
TRUE OR FALSE The Bill of Rights protects the rights of individuals T
TRUE OR FALSE The Federalist Papers were a series of essays that helped persuade people to support the Constitution T
TRUE OR FALSE Checks and Balances are official changes that can be added to the Constitution F
1st Amendment Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition & Religion
2nd Amendment The right to bear arms
3rd Amendment No quartering of soldiers in citizen’s homes
4th Amendment Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, says authorities must have a search warrant to conduct searches, etc.
5th Amendment Rights of accused, due process, double jeopardy, the right to remain silent, etc.
6th Amendment Right to a fair, speedy trial, right to confront accusers, etc
7th Amendment Involves civil suits
8th Amendment No cruel and unusual punishment, punishment must fit the crime, right to bail, etc.
9th Amendment Rights reserved to citizens
10th Amendment Rights reserved to the states
The president can check the power of the legislative branch by A. Vetoing a Law B. Issuing an executive order C. Granting a pardon D. Petitioning Congress A
The federal government has separate branches to A. Keep any once branch from growing too powerful B. Makes the government run more efficiently C. Provide flexibility in the interpretation of laws D. Ensure one branch is in charge at all time A
American men 18 years or older have to register with the Selective Service so A. The local court system can call on them to sit for jury duty C. The federal government can contact then in case of a draft D. They can vote C
This is a system that divided powers between the states and the federal government A.Federalism B.A dual system of government between the U.S. and Canada C.A system of government laws D.A system of laws designed to give the federal government power. A
To impeach means to A. Remove from office B. Bring up on charges of “high crimes and misdemeanors”/serious crimes C. To have a hearing in the Senate D. To be removed from office by the Executive branch B
This is the way the president may cancel laws proposed by Congress A. Ex Post Facto Laws B. Impeach C. Habeas Corpus D. Veto D
These are commands issued by the president that have the force of law A. Ex Post Facto Laws B. Laws C. Executive Orders D. Administrative Orders C
This is one of the duties of a Citizen A. Voting B. Paying Taxes C. Serving on a Jury D. All of the above D
This means to formally charge with wrongdoing A. Indict B. Endow C. Pardon D. Impeach A
Eminent Domain means the government may A. Not take personal property B. May take personal property to benefit the public C. May take personal property to benefit the rich D. May take personal property if it wants to B
TRUE OR FALSE Pardons may be issued by the President to free someone from punishment T
TRUE OR FALSE The Court of Appeal is a court that hears appeals from District Courts T
TRUE OR FALSE A senator must by 35 years old to qualify for the Senate F
TRUE OR FALSE In order to be president a person must have been a resident of the U.S. for 10 years F
TRUE OR FALSE Political Action Committees raise money for their candidate of choice T
According to the principle of ____________________, the decisions of the greatest number of people in a society make policy for everyone. Majority Rule
___________________means to return to the country of origin, immigrants who break the law. Deport
____________________ is the process by which immigrants become citizens of the U.S. Naturalization
. ___________________ are people who share a common interest that motivates them to take political action, e.g. the dairy lobby, beef lobby, etc. Intrest Groups
The ___________________branch of government interprets law, or determines the constitutionality of law. Judicial
George Washington Advised the nation to educate the populace in his farewell address
Alien and Sedition Acts These laws allowed the president to remove foreign residents he thought were involved in treason or plots against the government & forbid criticism of the government
Martha Washington Was in charge of entertaining guests and social events for the President
Precedent A standard for future action or an action that later serves as an example
Debt This is money that is owed
Thomas Jefferson Served as the first Secretary of State for the U.S.
Judiciary Act of 1789 This established the federal courts and their relation to the state courts
XYZ Affair Incident in which French agents asked American officials for a bribe to consider a treaty between the U.S. and France
Bonds Certificates of debt that carry a promise to buy back the certificate at a higher rate (w/interest)
Speculators People who buy items at a low price in the hope that the value will rise and they can sell the times for a profit (buy low, sell high)
President Washington personally led the army against the Whiskey Rebellion because he felt C.People needed to understand the constitutional right of Congress to institute tax laws D.The rebellion might spark similar incidents of violence C
According to George Washington’s Farewell Address, what was the key to national success? A. Political Unity B. Neutrality in foreign policy C. Economic Security D. Checks and Balances A
Electoral College? A.A body of delegates from each state that represents the people’s vote in choosing the president C.A group of voters handpicked for cabinet positions by the president-elect a
Who surveyed the area that would become Washington, D.C.? A. Thomas Jefferson B. George Washington C. James Madison D. Benjamin Banneker D
A privateer is a A. A Pirate B. A primitive naval force C. Private ships hired by a country to attack its enemies D. A ship know as a “Man of War” C
In this battle the Miami Indians were defeated by Gen. Anthony Wayne A. Yorktown B. Fallen Timbers C. Detroit D. Quebec B
He was the leader of the Miami Indians and successfully defeated two American armies in the early 1790s A. Tecumseh B. Sitting Bull C. Little Turtle D. Crazy Horse C
This treaty lead to the removal of the Miami Indians to a reservation and gave the U.S. claim to Indian lands in the Northwest Territory A. The treaty of Paris, 1763 B. The treaty of Paris, 1783 C. The treaty of Ghent, 1814 D.The treaty of Greenvil D
This revolution to overthrow the monarchy and bring greater democracy ended in violence and the regicide (killing of a King) by the people A. The French Revolution B. The American Revolution C. The Spanish Revolution D. The English Revolution A
Washington issued the neutrality proclamation to A. Maintain peace with Great Britain B. Maintain peace with France C.Prevent the U.S. from getting involved in a war in Europe D.Prevent Europe from getting involved in a war of conquest in Latin Amer C
TRUE OR FALSE “Loose Constructionist” is the idea that certain parts of the Constitution do not need to be upheld or enforced F
TRUE OR FALSE “Strict Constructionist” is the idea that the government may only do what the constitution says it can do T
TRUE OR FALSE According to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the most serious flaw in Alexander Hamilton’s plan for a national bank was that it would not help the economy grow F
TRUE OR FALSE The National Bank (1st bank of the U.S.) became the place where the U.S. government deposited its revenue, made loans, issued bonds, etc. T
TRUE OR FALSE The Federalist Party believed in a strong central government T
The ____________________, which deemed the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional, supported the idea that state governments could challenge the federal government (Neutrality Proclamation/Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions) Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The reason the U.S. needed to found a ___________________ was to stabilize the national economy (national mint/national bank) national bank
This treaty was not well received in the U.S in 1794 ____________________ (Pinckney’s Treaty/Jay’s Treaty) Jay’s Treaty
The nation’s capital was moved from New York to Washington, D.C. as part of the compromise to establish the ____________________ (national bank/protective tariffs) protective tariffs
The ___________________was invented to cause a quick, humane death for those convicted of a capital crime (firing squad/guillotine) guillotine
Shawnee leader who worked to unite Native Americans against U. S. expansion Tecumseh
Led a naval flotilla to victory against the British at the Battle of Lake Erie Oliver Hazard Perry
Ended the Creek War and forced the Creek Indians to give up millions of acres of land John Adams
Supreme Court Justice who wrote the opinion for Marbury vs. Madison John Marshall
2nd president of the United States--believed in a strong Central government John Adams
Tied for presidency in the election of 1800, became the vice-president Aaron Burr
Shoshone Indian who assisted the Lewis and Clark Expedition Sacagawea
Explored the Southwest portion of the Louisiana Territory Zebulon Pike
A member of Congress from Kentucky who called for war with Great Britain Henry Clay
French minister who helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase Charles Talleyrand
Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States to a.Gain U.S. support for France’s war against Spain c.Gain money for France’s war against the British d.Extend the French empire into North America C
What was one effect of the Battle of Tippecanoe? a.Native Americans lost hope for a Native American Confederation b.The British began support Native American rebels c.Tecumseh was forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. a
Which of the following was a major theme of Thomas Jefferson’s inaugural address? a.protecting civil liberties b.expanding the powers of government c.improving the capital’s infrastructure d.repaying the national debt a
The Hartford Convention was an attempt by which group in the United States to oppose the 1812 war against Britain? a. The Virginia Democratic-Republicans b. The Northwest Frontiersmen c. New England Federalists d. The New Orleanais c
Judicial Review refers to the power of a.Congress to oversee decisions made by the Supreme Court b.Congress to review the appointment of Supreme Court justices c.The Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional c
Which of the following territories belonged to Spain until 1802? a. Indiana b. Mississippi c. Louisiana d. Michigan c
What was one effect of the Embargo Act passed by Congress a.More American ports opened b.American merchants lost money c.British merchants ships were allowed to sail only into New Orleans d.Foreign imports were allowed, but U.S. exports came to an end b
The USS Constitution was known as “Old Ironsides” because a. Cannon balls bounced off its 25 inch thick hull during battle b. It was made of iron c. It had copper platting on the exterior d. It was exceedingly rusty a
Stephan Decatur became a Naval hero during which war? a. The War of 1812 b. The Battle of New Orleans c. The Battle of Lake Erie d. The Barbary Coast wars off the coast of North Africa d
These are the American diplomats who negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory a. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark b. Robert Livingston and James Monroe c. Felix Grundy and John C. Calhoun d. Leo Jaffe and William Wisdom b
He defeated the forces of Tecumseh at the battle of Tippecanoe a. James Madison b. Aaron Burr c. Charles Pinckney d. William Henry Harrison d
She saved a painting of George Washington and many valuables prior British burning the executive mansion, later known as the White House a. Martha Washington b. Abigail Adams c. Dolley Madison d. Betsey Ross c
He was president during the War of 1812 a. James Madison b. John Adams c. Thomas Jefferson d. George Washington a
He was a candidate for president in the election of 1800, and was a Federalist a. William Henry Harrison b. Andrew Jackson c. Felix Grundy d. Charles C. Pinckney d
Thomas Jefferson handpicked this individual to lead the voyage of discovery to the Northwest a. Zebulon Pike b. Meriwether Lewis c. Felix Grundy d. James Monroe b
This individual was a member of Congress from South Carolina and called for war with Great Britain a. Edward Pakenham b. Francis Scott Key c. John C. Calhoun d. Hughes Benjamin c
He was the leader of the slave rebellion in Haiti, aka the Black Napoleon a. Charles Talleyrand b. Tecumseh c. Osceola d. Toussaint Louverture d
This British Commander was killed at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 a. General Cornwallis b. General Pakenham c. The Duke of Wellington d. Colonel Thornton b
This was one of the causes of the United States declaring war against Great Britain a. Stamp Act b. Sugar Act c. Impressment d. Tea Tax c
During the British bombardment of this fort the Star-Spangled Banner was composed a. Ft. McHenry b. Ft. Ticonderoga c. Ft. Mims d. Ft. Jackson a
TRUE OR FALSE William Marbury sued James Madison to secure his appointment as Justice of Peace for Washington D.C. T
TRUE OR FALSE William Clark was the American Commander at the battle of New Orleans F
TRUE OR FALSE Felix Grundy was a war hawk and member of Congress in 1812 T
TRUE OR FALSE The Battle of New Orleans occurred after the War of 1812 ended t
TRUE OR FALSE One of the effects of the War of 1812 was increased sense of national pride for Americans t
TRUE OR FALSE One of the causes of the War of 1812 was the American defeat of the USS Constitution at the Battle of Lake Erie f
TRUE OR FALSE The Treaty of Ft. Jackson ended the Seminole Indian war f
TRUE OR FALSE The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812 t
TRUE OR FALSE The purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to find the head waters of the Mississippi River f
TRUE OR FALSE Tecumseh and the British captured Ft. Detroit during the War of 1812 t
Mountain Men Fur traders and trappers who headed west seeking beaver pelts/furs and adventure
The Oregan Trail A 2,000 mile trail that started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Oregon Country
The Santa Fe Trail An important trail that started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Mormons Left for Utah because of religious persecution
Stephan Austin An empresario for Mexico, started a colony on the lower Colorado River
Sam Houston Head of the Texan forces that defeated Santa Anna at the battle of San Jacinto, later became President of the Texas Republic
Dacy Crockett Leader of a band of Tennessee militia—he was killed at the battle of the Alamo
The Alamo An abandoned mission near San Antonio that became an important battle site in the Texas Revolution (fight for Independence)
Empresarios Another name for agents hired by the Mexican government to bring settlers to Texas
Santa Anna Leader of Mexico during the Texas fight for Independence, defeated the Texans at the Alamo and Goliad
Brigham Young was A. Leader of the Texas forces during the fight for Texas Independence B. Mormon leader who directed the Mormons west to Utah C. Individual who persecuted the Mormons in Illinois D. Wanted the Mormons to head west to California B
Colonel Jim Bowie participated in which of the following battles? A. The battle of the Alamo B. The battle of Goliad C. The battle of San Jacinto D. The battle of Vera Cruz A
This individual was the leader of a small force of men that occupied the Alamo and held out against a larger Mexican army for two weeks A. Colonel Jim Bowie B. Davy Crockett C. Colonel Jim Travis D. General Sam Houston C
In this battle Santa Anna ordered 350 Texans (who surrendered) to be executed.became rallying cry for Texans. A.The battle of the Alamo B.The battle of Goliad C.The battle of San Jacinto D.The battle of Vera Cruz B
. In this battle the Texans captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty giving Texas its independence A. The battle of the Alamo B. The battle of Goliad C. The battle of San Jacinto D. The battle of Vera Cruz C
This was the idea that the United States should extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean A. Westward Expansion B. Eastward Expansion C. Manifest Expansion D. Manifest Destiny D
He was President during the Mexican-American War A. James Taylor B. John Tyler C. Andrew Jackson D. James K. Polk D
This was the Spanish name for cowboys who managed herds of cattle and sheep A. Hired Manos B. Vaqueros C. Nacho Libre D. Banditos B
These were early Spanish colonists in California A. Mexicans B. Spanish Mexicans C. Californios D. Californian-Mexicans C
The Bear Flag Revolt of 1846 was A.Mexicans in California declared California to be an independent nation C.When Mexicans declared it to be an independent nation D.When Americans in California declared California to be a independent nation D
TRUE OR FALSE Abraham Lincoln proposed the spot resolution in Congress T
TRUE OR FALSE General Winfield Scott commanded the U. S. troops during the battle for Mexico City T
TRUE OR FALSE General Zachary Taylor commanded the U. S. troops during the battle of Vera Cruz F
TRUE OR FALSE . General Stephan Kearny captured Santa Fe after a long battle in which many Americans were killed F
Captain John C. Fremont helped lead TRUE OR FALSE the Americans in California during their fight for independence from Mexico T
The treaty of _______________ended the Mexican-American War Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under the terms of the_______________ the U.S. government paid Mexico 10 million dollars for land that became the southern border of Arizona and New Mexico Gasden Purchase
The ______________ became trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the winter of 1847 and resorted to cannibalism to survive Donner-Reed party
The _______________were prospectors that arrived in California in 1849 looking for Gold (since then they have also been know to beat the Saints in playoff games☹) 49ers
_______________Miners used pans or other devices to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock and gravel Placer
. _______________started a fur trading post in Astoria, (Oregon) at the mouth of the Columbia River in the early 1800s John Jacob Astor
. _______________ was a former slave who became an African American Mountain man and Crow Indian chief Jim Beckworth
. _______________ was a leading Mexican official that convinced the Californios to side with the Americans after the Mexican-American War Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
Father_______________ instigated a rebellion against Spain in the Spanish Southwest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
______________ was a former slave who became a wealthy land owner in California during the Gold Rush Biddy Mason
Created by: c.culicchia
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