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Prof Mirabito

Exam 3 definitions

QuestionAnswer
3'polyadenylation5' During eukaroytic pre-mRNA processing, an enzyme -driven modification that removes the 3'end of the pre-mRNA and adds numerous adenines
3' splice site In eukaryotic pre-mRNA processing, the location of cleavage at the 3'end of an intron. Contains an AG dinucleotide in a consensus sequence.
5' splice site In mRNA processing, the location of cleavage at the 5' end of an intron. Contains a GU dinucleotide in a consensus sequence.
5' capping In pre-mRNA processing the addition of 7-methylguanosine to the nucleotide at the end of pre-mRNA by a triphosphate bridge. Methylation of adjacent nucleotides may also occur.
-35 consensus sequence A specific consensus sequence of the bacterial promoter at the polymearase is bound.
coding strand nontemplate strand of DNA thart has the same 5'-to3' polarity as its transcript and the same sequence, except for T in DNA and U in RNA.
consensus sequence nucleotide sequence in a dna segment derived by comparing sequences of similar segments from other genes or organisms.
downstream reffering to a gene or sequence location that is toward the 3' direction on the coding strand.
enhancer sequence set of regulatory sequences that bind specific transcriptional proteins that can elevate transcription of targeted eukaryotic genes.
silencer sequence regulatory dna sequences that can repress transcription ofspecific genes that may be located distantly from the sequence.
stem-loop (hairpin structure) short double stranded segments of rna topped by a single stranded loop containing unpaired nucleotides
intrinsic termination Inverted repeat dna sequences induce formation of 3' mrna stem loop structures that are followed by multiple uracils
intron splicing spliceosome complex driven process that removes introns from eukaryotic pre mrna and ligates exons to form mature mrna
messenger RNA (mRNA) form of rna yranscribed from a geneand subsequently translated to produce a polypeptide or protien
nontemplate strand nontemplate strand of DNA thart has the same 5'-to3' polarity as its transcript and the same sequence, except for T in DNA and U in RNA.
template strand dna strand serving as a template for synthesis of a complementary nucleic acid strand.
termination sequence dna seqences that serve to stop transcription.
transcription factors (TFs) protiens that bind promoters and are functional in transcription
polyadenylation signal sequence hexanucleotide seqence of mrna. usually AAUAAA, that identifies the location of 3'pre mrna cleavage and polyadenylation
precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) initial transcript of eukaryotic gene reguiring mrna processing prior to translation
promoter regulatory seqence of dna near 5' end of a gene that acts as binding location of rna polymerase and directs rna polymearase to the start of transcription
sigma subunit (alternative sigma subunits) Accesory protein that changes the promoter recognition specificity of the bacterial rna polymearase core enzyme.
upstream referring to a gene or seqence in location that is toward the 5' direction of the coding strand.
3' untranslated region (3'UTR) untranslated segment of mrna between the stop codon and the 3' end of the transcript.
5' untranslated region (5'UTR) untranslated segment of mrna between the 5' end of the transcript and the start codon.
charged tRNA trna to which the correct amino acid has been attached.
Kozak sequence specific consensus of eukaryotic mrna that conatins the authentic start codn sequence.
polycistronic mRNA mrna containing the transcriptsof two or more genes
Shine-Dalgarno sequence 5' UTR mrna consensus seqence that pair with nucleotides near the 3' end of 16s rrna in the small ribosomal subunit to orient the start codon on ribosome
uncharged tRNA trna not carrying an amino acid.
activator binding site dna seqence to which an activator protein binds to regulate gene expression. refers to the regulatory site.
activator protein transcriptionfactor that binds to regulatory sequences associated with a gene and upregulates that genes expression
allolactose modified form of lactose that binds to the lac repressor protein, that reduces the dna binding ability of the complex.
allosteric domain (allostery) domain of a protein to change shape when it binds to a specific molecule; the protein in the new shape is altered in its ablility to bind to a second molecule.
allosteric effector compound molecule that binds to the allosteric protein domain and subseqently induces a change in bound protein.
attenuation (attenuator region) regulatory region downstreamof the promoter of repressible amino acid operons that exert transcriptional control based on the translationof leader peptide; the efficency of which is determined by the availabililty of specific amino acids
CAP binding site (CAP-cAMP complex) formed by joining catabolite proteins to camp, that complex binds to the camp binding site of the bacterial lac promoter to regulate gene expression.
catabolite repression situationwhere the presence of the catabolite represses the transcription of genes for analtrnative catabolite.
cis-acting Acting on the same chromosome
cis-dominant principle that he operator can infuence only transcription of adjacent downstream genes
constitutive transcription (constitutive mutants) State in which a gene is continuosly transcribed
corepressor accesorymolecule required for a repressor protein to exert its function.
DNA-binding domain
inducer accesory molecule that binds to a protein that leads to activation of gene expression. the inducer can bind to a repressor protein and prevent its function or bind to an activator protein and stimulate its function
inducer-repressor complex molecular complex consisting of a repressor protein protein and a bound inducer molecule.
inducible operon operon that is not expressed under one set of enviromental conditions, but whose transcription is activated under alternative enviromental conditions
induction process by which one cell or tissue promotes a particular developmental fate in neigboring cells or tissues.
inhibitor accesory molecule thta converts activator proteins to an inactive conformation by binding to an allosteric binding domain of the activator protein
lac+ phenotype Bacteria that are able to grow on a medium containg lactose as the only sugar
lac- phenotype bacteia that are not able to grow on a medium conating lactose as the only sugar.
lacA gene (lacY gene, lacZ gene)
leader region (trpL)
negative control (of transcription)
noninducible
operator
operon
polycistronic mRNA
positive control
regulated transcription
repressible operon
repressor protein
stem loop [3-4 (termination), 2-3(antitermination)]
trans-acting
translation repressor protein
chromatin modifier
chromatin remodeling
cis-acting regulatory sequence
closed chromatin
covered promoter
CpG dinucleotide (CpG island)
DNase I hypersensitive site
enhancer (enhancer sequence)
epigenetic modification
geonomic imprinting
imprinting control region (ICR)
insulator sequence
operon chromatin
open promoter
silencer sequence
trans-acting regulatory protein
upstream activator sequence (UAS)
Created by: ale223
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