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Protein Synthesis P1

Protein Synthesis Part 1

Described ribosome couple Large subunit on top of small subunit and it is inactive. Couple has to be separated to form a monosome, ribosome attaches to the mRNA & is ready to decode info
What does the ratio of polysome to monosome reflect? The activity of protein synthesis. More ribosomes= more protein synthesis
Name the four stages of protein synthesis 1. Aminoacylation 2. Initiation (GTP & ATP) 3. Elongation (GTP) 4. Termination
What has to be ensured for all tRNA's Charged state. Amino acid is esterfied to tRNA. catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
Diphthamide Has a modified histone. Present in EF-2, highly suseptible to inhibition of synthesis by and exotoxin produced by corynebeacterium dipthariae
Describe the role of exotoxin Catalyzes the modification by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Consumes NAD as a substrate by breaking the ribose-nucleotinamide bond. NAD is covalently attached to N
Hypusine It is a composite made up of lysine and spermidine on the other end. Present in eIF-5a. Related to the destruction of pancreatic islets when you have cytokine induced inflammation
Selenocysteine Modified cysteine, found in 15-30 polypeptide chains in Pro and Euk. Selenoproteins play a role in defense against oxidative stress. Encoded by AUG (termination)= insert selenocysteine into selenoproteins
What direction is proteins synthesized in? From N terminus to C terminus. 1st aminoacyl tRNA linking to the 2nd aminoacyl tRNA to form dipeptidyl tRNA then to a 3rd and so forth
Describe tRNA features CCA at 3'. Adaptor molecule, 2 ends are anchoring the AA at the 3' end & at other end there is anticodon loop which interacts with mRNA. 5' loop=di-hydrouridine. 3' loop=T-psuedouridine C loop
Feature of psudouracil Change in Carbon Nitrogen position (RNA editing)
Wobble position Refers to the first base of the anticodon
Class I amnioacyl synthetase tRNA oriented to your right (CCA to right). Synthesase attacks from front to 2' position and need to be moved to 3'
Class II aminoacyl synthetase tRNA has CCA oriented to the left. Synthesase attacks from backside and attaches directly to the 3' position
Ribosome of Pro 70s--30s and 50s subunit. 30s contains 16s which recognizes the initiation codon
Ribosome of Euk 80s--40s and 60s
Features of smaller subunits of ribosomes Have E, P and A sites. First aminoacyl tRNA positions to the P site. Has enzymatic activity called the peptidyl transferase (ribozyme). Organization of small unit allos peptide bond formation.
What do Pro mRNA lack that Euk has? Lacks cap structure, has shine delgarno sequence which is purine rich at 5' UTR (9-16nts) Complementary with 3' end of 16s
Describe the mRNA Has 5' UTR--AUG--coding sequence--termination sequence--3' UTR--3' end
AUG Initiator condon, represents methionine. Recognized by the initiator tRNA. Pro has f-Met-tRNA (formyl group) and Euk has Met tRNA
Degeneracy of genetic code More codons than amino acids
Wobble base rules If you have A or C there is no deviation. G, T or hypoxanthine (I) you have flexibility. I can pair with A, C or U.
What step of the process determines the incorporation of amino acids? The charging of tRNA. cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase results in charge. ATP reacts with AA to form intermediate aminoacyl adenylate then tRNA binds
Why would synthetase undergo editing? To make sure tRNA is right for AA
Role of transformylase Only present in Pro to formylate initiator tRNA
Energy used in each step 1. Aminoacylation: ATP to AMP. 2. Initiation: ATP and extra ATP in Euk for mRNA binding. 3. Elongation: Aminoacyl binding-GTP, tranlocation-GTP. 4. Termination: GTP