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|Believed that human nature was innately good and that it was moral education that made some people more superior.
|The trouble with the world is that the government does too much for them. Virtue is achieved through natural instinctive qualities. Strive to return to a state before people were corrupted by follies of civilization.Lao Tzo= Founder
|Organized families into mutual surveillance units, imposed harsh punishments, and rewarded informers. Emphasized rule by law. No one was above the law. Founder = Shang Yang
|How do Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism differ?
|The Confucian sage should do stuff for people while the Tao sage should do nothing at all. Legalism believed the government should tell people what to do.
|He also taught the 5 basic relationships: 1.ruler and minister 2. Father and son 3. Husband and wife 4. Elder and younger siblings 5. Friend. He believed that family was important and should be treated on a mini scale of the state. Founder= Confucianism
|Taught that people must return to the state of virtue and live the ideal of Jen. When Jen is practiced with Li, then society will return to a state of Tao which is a moral way ordained by the heavens and carried out by the sage rulers.
|What were some of the important accomplishments of the short lived Ch’in dynasty?
|United all the lands into one and renamed it the national dynasty of Ch’in. Standardized currency.
|What is the key feature of Indus civilization?
|Homogeneity, uniformity in civic administrations, trade, houses, and they maintained a high standard or public sanitation.
|What are the Five Classics?
|1. Chun Chiu (Spring and Autumn) 2. Shu Ching (Book of History) 3. Shih Ching (Book of Poetry) 4. Li Chi (Book of Rites) 5. I Ching (Book of Change)
|What book(s) did Confucius write?
|1. Chun Chiu (Spring and Autumn)
|What are the Book of History and the Book of Poetry about?
|Written by Chou described and justified their destruction of the Shang dynasty.
|What are the 3 writing styles of the Chinese?
|1. Pictographs 2. Ideographs 3.Logographs
|Which Dynasty abolished human sacrifices?
|11. The Aryans were a class based society, what were the main four class divisions of their society?
|Brahmans were the priests, Kshatriyas were the warriors, Vaisyas were the landholders and artisans, and Sudras were the serfs and servants and were usually the darker skinned natives of India.
|What or who is a Raja?
|The Aryans king
|Sanskrit is what and which people used it? What are the eight chapters?
|Sanskirt is a form of writing and all Indo-European languages are related because they all have the same common ancestor. Eight chapters was a great grammar book written in the 4th century and it standardized the language.
|What is Tamil?
|The earliest language found at the beginning of the Common Era and it belongs to South India which are unrelated to the Indo-Europeans.
|What are the 2 religious trends that occurred during the late Vedic age?
|1) Brahman religious leaders challenged the king’s pretentions to political absolutism. 2) Men not traditionally associated with religious practices challenged the tradition of religious rites and sacrifices.
|What were some of the speculated causes that ended the Indus civilization?
|1) Extensive flooding due to deforestation was no cause. 2) Geological changes that caused the Arabian sea to shift cutting off trade routes
|Who were the 1st people to grow and weave cotton?
|The Indus Civilization
|What are the important accomplishments of the Chou and Shang Dynasty?
|Chou Dynasty: 1) Water control such as controlling floods, allowing for irrigation. 2) Fertilization and crop rotation 3) Introduction of iron farming implements. Shang Dynasty: 1) the fixed lunar calendar of 366 to a year. 2)
|What is the concept of ‘Great Harmony’?
|Everyone is living in peace, no violence or anything. Everyone is being taking care of, an ideal society.
|What made Lady Hao unique?
|Was a powerful wife of one of the shang kings. She led troop’s war, owned her estates, and was mother to some of the kings children. When she died, she was buried with 16 sacrificed humans and 6 dogs as well as about 1600 other ritual objects.
|What is the difference between Paleolithic and Neolithic?
|Humans in Paleolithic era were mainly nomadic. The Neolithic era consisted of the agricultural revolution.
|The use of fire is associated with which human lineage?
|The use of tools is associated with which human lineage?
|What were some of the adaptations made in the Old Stone Age that allowed for the evolution of human development?
|Ability to walk upright, teeth size position, brain size, and dexterity of opposable thumb
|What were human beings around the world capable of during the Old Stone Age?
|1)Manufacturing implements made from stone or bone such as weapons, or tools.2)Control of fire for cooking, light, and heat.3)Developed a spoken language and gestures used to communicate.4)Formulated an artistic tradition.
|What were human beings around the world capable of during the Old Stone Age? (cont'd)
|5) Created rituals practices connected with fertility and the burial of the dead. 6) Organized themselves into social groups for efficient collection and sharing food.
|What characterized the new Stone Age?
|The development of agriculture techniques, domesticating animals for food consumption, which lead to the development of a more complex society. Food production also started to affect the gender roles.
|How is civilization defined?
|Civilization is defined in terms of urbanization. Urban characteristics include specialized vocation, advances in art and technology, complex political and cultural institutions and the presence of a written language.
|What is the ‘mandate of heaven’?
|Heaven appointed a worthy man to rule and allowed him to pass on his kingship to his descendants as long as the kings ruled with compassion and justice and carried out all religious duties.
|What is the difference between a prehistoric and historic society?
|Prehistoric is used to describe a society whose writings we have not deciphered while historic are used to describe a society whose writings we can decipher.
|Which continent is the largest? Which is the 2nd largest?
|Asia is the largest continent in the world and Africa is the second largest.
|How did Egypt get its name?
|The Greeks named Kemet Egypt due a temple that was built in honor of King Ptah and when the 1st Greeks came in the 7th century BCE, they referred to the land as The land of the Temple of Ptah which was Latinized became Aegyptus from which Egypt is derived
|The Egyptians suffered the “Great Humiliation”, which was?
|A time when Egypt fell prey to a succession of invasions and the kings were ejected from their kingdoms.
|What are the 5 time periods that Egypt is divided into?
|Early Dynastic Period: 3100-2700BCE, Old Kingdom: 2700-2200 BCE, Middle Kingdom: 2050-1650 BCE, New Kingdom: 1550-1100 BCE, Post-Empire Period: 1100-30 BCE
|Define polytheism and monotheism.
|Polytheism is the belief in many gods and monotheism is the belief in one god.
|The gods had both human and animal features or characteristics or they could have the feature of two different animals.
|Osiris, Isis and Horus are related to Christianity in what way? What other name are they known by?
|Osiris (Ausar), Isis (Aset), and Horus (Heru) are related to Christianity through the story of Jesus and the Holy Trinity. The Ankh is similar to the cross in Christianity.
|What is the kemetic symbol for life?
|The Ankh was the ancient kemet symbol for life.
|Who declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
|Constantine declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
|What is Karma? What is Ascetics?
|Karma is a person’s deeds this/past life/lives affect their present/future lives. Ascetics are where men/women abandoned their material goods for a quest of wisdom and meditation.
|What is the Upanishads?
|The greatest creation of the late Vedic era. It is a collection of 108 essays. The essays deal with ethical questions written between 800 and 300 BCE. This term refers to sitting near the teacher.
|What is known as ‘China’s sorrow’?
|The Yellow River dominated North China and brought cruel floods.
|Hsia calendar is based on? Developed by?
|The Chinese fixed a lunar calendar 366 days to a year.
|A political/economic system devised by Chou. Land was granted to members of the court known as fiefdoms; each fiefdom was called a Kuo. The lords ruled their fiefdoms in accordance to the kings’ wishes and the people worked the lands.
|The Li Chi is?
|The book of rituals also written by the Chou and it describes the organization of the government and rituals etc.
|What military accomplishments were made during the era of the warring states?
|The Crossbow and a longer and more powerful Composite bow were developed.
|What is a scribe? How valued is a scribe?
|A writer and these professions are honorable
|What is Judaism and its key concepts?
|Emerged as the world’s greatest monotheism faith, the Hebrew people made their contribution to civilization not in politics or military conquest but in religion.
|What is Judaism and its key concepts? (cont'd)
|The 10 commandments were the moral code for the people. Scriptures reflected social attitudes: restricting the women to the home and boys were taught the Torah.
|What are the Tanakh and the Torah?
|The Tanakh is holy scriptures and the Torah is the first 5 books of the Tanakh (Equivalent to the Old Testiment)
|What is Monotheism?
|Belief in one god.
|Abraham, Jacob, and Moses, what is their relationship to each other and the Hebrew people?
|Abraham led his people(Israelites)from Urin Babylonia to Canaan(Palestine). It was Abraham grandson Jacob(Israel) who led the people into Egypt to escape the famine in Palestine and it was Moses who led the people out of Egypt and back to Palestine.
|Who is Socrates and what does he subscribe to?
|A man who questioned the right conduct of life and he believed in absolute values and he questioned and cross questioned others. This questioning was later known as Socratic Method of inquiry.
|Plato and Aristotle subscribe to which philosophies?
|Knowledge to concepts such as beauty, virtue, and justice. (Socrates)
|Who founded the Academy?
|Who founded Lyceum?
|What is a Polis and who ran the Polis?
|Greek’s independent city-states and were run by an aristocrat oligarchy.
|What are Hetairai and Pallakai?
|Sophisticated girls; concubines who could not bear legitimate children
|What are Hoplites?
|Deployed a mass formation of heavily armed foot soldiers ,Greek’s soldiers used advanced equipment
|What is the Delian League?
|Athens, Sparta, and 30 other city-states joined together to form a league of protection from the Persians.
|What is the Socratic method of inquiry?
|The process of questioning and cross-questioning others.
|The Hellenistic period is from period of time?
|Post Classical civilization after Alexanders Death
|What are the 3 kingdoms of the Hellenistic empire?
|1. Macedon and Greece 2. Seleucid Empire 3.Ptolemaic Kingdom
|What are the 2 main philosophies of the Hellenistic empire?
|Epicureanism and Stoicism
|Its principles are goodness is based on knowledge, a wise person lives in harmony with nature by means of one’s reason, and the only good is harmony with nature.
|Its principles were nothing exists but atoms and void, the soul is material and disintegrates like the body, the only good life is pleasure, all actions should be aimed at minimizing pain or stress and thereby increasing pleasure.
|What are some of the major accomplishments of the Hellenistic empire?
|1.Trade relations were extensive, growth in international and manufacturing commerce occurred 2.Papyrus was used to document important thing like taxes and divorces 3.Road networks were expanded, standard monetary systems were adopted
|What are some of the major accomplishments of the Hellenistic empire? (cont'd)
|4.The great library of Alexander and the museum(think tank) 5.Principles of geometry, value of pi, sun centered universe theory, circumference of Earth, and understanding anatomy
|What is the Twelve Tables?
|The Roman Laws
|What are the differences between Patricians and Plebeians?
|Patricians: hereditary aristocracies that accept civic responsibly Plebeians: majority of the population, farmers, shepherds, and small merchants
|Freed persons in Rome used to be?
|Slaves that were rewarded for good service etc.
|Senate and Roman People (SPQR):
|ex-magistrates who also held membership for life; the logo of Roman jurisdiction
|chief person elected for life who preside over the state religion
|A value system that embraced devotion to the gods and to the members of one’s family, living and dead. The family was a microcosmic state.
|plebeians and patricians who favored the common people
|plebeians and patricians who favored the senatorial elite
|Roman Peace, economic stability, commercial and manufacturing activities that flourished and its secure trade routes.
|Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey the Great):
|cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals; defeated by Caesar, had instituted direct control over Palestine in 63 B.C.E
|Gaius Julius Caesar:
|cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals; gained territory for Rome
|cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals. Defeated by Octavian
|cooperated to subvert the republican system in favor of their personal goals. Monopolized power, built forums, renovated temples, improved roads, financed public games, and kept grain prices low
|queen of Egypt; defeated by Octavian Caesar
|The Punic wars, how many were there? What were the causes?
|3, Carthage began to expand into Sicily because they were the major power in western Mediterranean for trading and Rome sent troops to stop them
|King Herod the Great:
|began project to rebuild Solomon’s temples, executed members of his own family and infants after Jesus’s birth over concerns of dynamic succession,
|Ruled over Rome in C.E., brutal over Jews and tolerated Greek’s massacres,
|The Talmud is?
|A multivolume encyclopedia of Jewish religion
|advocated for revolutionary overthrow of the Romans so they could establish a free nation based on their religious teachings; they emphasized literal readings of the torah and strict application of the law
|dagger men, were militants who often used guerilla warfare tactics
|were people of various social classes and occupations; places emphasis on adherence to the Torah; they stressed prayer, fasting, and ritual purity; believed that the Messiah would come to lead their nation against the forces of unbelievers
|were a socially exclusive party who belong to the aristocratic families; did not accept the new doctrine of resurrection of the dead and an afterlife as the Pharisees did;
|they believed in the Sanhedrin (the Supreme religious and judicial council of the Jews) and sought accommodations and peacefully co-existed with the Romans
|similar to the Pharisees with emphasis on the Law of Moses, ritual purity, and scrupulous observance of the Sabbath; founded a community in the 2nd century and the founder is called teacher of the righteousness; didnt believe in Resurrection
|What is Sanhedrin?
|the Supreme religious and judicial council of the Jews
|Teacher of the righteousness founded which group?
|Qumran community is?
|A self-sufficient community with pottery workshops, flour mills, ovens, living quarters, and cemeteries.
|Who were agents of constructive change?
|Jesus of Nazareth is? What did he do?
|A new Jewish preacher that initiated a new religion called Christianity; Jews believed that he was the Messiah whose coming had been alluded to in the Old Testament
|The Lord’s Supper is also known as?
|Converts of the religion underwent ritual baptism and common mean of bread and wine, Eucharist
|Why were many attracted to Christianity?
|Many were attracted to it because of its stability, order, and morality.
|Who issued the Edict of Toleration?
|Roman Emperor Galerius
|Who issued the Edict of Milan?
|What are the 4 reasons for Christianities final victory over competing faiths and persecution?
|3.It held out hope for a better life in the world of a heavenly city. 4.It satisfied the universe need to belong. Founded upon the tenant ‘Love thy neighbor’, the church assumed responsibility for their own caring for the sick, orphans, and widows.
|What are the 4 reasons for Christianities final victory over competing faiths and persecution? (cont'd)
|1.It was in its demand for allegiance, required a single irreversible commitment to 1 creed.It offered prominent values. 2.It was equalitarian.It ignored caste and other differences among believers and stressed and stressed the value of an individual sou
|A priest named Arius began to preach that Jesus himself was not divine, that he was created by god but was not god. That Jesus had no contact with god but acted on the basis of his divinely created perfection.
|a group of Bishops came into conflict with the Roman church, they argued that baptisms by less than perfect priests were not valid.
|was the earliest challenge to orthodox Christian thought. Rejected the church hierarchy and stressed the importance of individual knowledge and experience as to means of salvation. They allowed women to preach and baptize
|What is the Council of Nicaea in 325 and what did they do?
|Emerged the distinctive Christian doctrine of the Trinity and a definitive statement of essential beliefs of Christian beliefs known as the Nicine Creed. The writings help to clarify the Christian Dogma
|The Vulgate is?
|The Bible translated into Latin by Jerome
|Who wrote ‘Confessions’ and ‘City of God’?
|Who is Muhammad and what did he do?
|Born in Mecca around 570, raised by his grandfather and married an older widow; He began to preach the word of Allah and gained some believers to the new religion Islam (submission to god)
|Which 3 monotheistic religions emerged from western Asia and were built on many of the same traditions?
|Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
|What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
|1.Belief in the Allah and his prophet Muhammad 2.Prayer 5 times a day 3.The giving of alms 4.Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the month Ramadan 5.The Hajii or pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a person’s lifetime
|Who are the four rightly guided Caliphs and what are they known for?
|1.Abu Baker 2.Umar 3.Uthman 4.Ali:
|One of the 1st and original converts to Islam was known for his humor, devotion, and wisdom. He died in 634
|2nd caliph, his time was marked by military conquest which brought vast wealth to the Muslims; established 2 authoritative versions of the Qur’an
|was an older man about 70 and he was criticized for favoring members of his own family over the rest of Umma (Islamic community) He was assassinated in 656 after a revolt broke out
|was Muhammad’s son in law, he was elected by a council but received a lot of opposition. Many believed Ali had a hand Uthman’s death. He fled to Medina and set up his capital in Kufah (Iraq)
|Tribal people who were animists
|believers in inanimate objects
|a collection of sayings and traditions
|complex body of the law
|are the experts who explain the Islamic cannons
|pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a person’s lifetime
|leaders of the Islamic community
|(clergy) assumed the role of leadership and direction in the Shi’i community which continued to look to the clergy for leadership
|The Twelvers(appeared from the Shi split) are?
|They recognized the Imams (leaders) through Husayn’s children and believe that the 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Muntazar, disappeared into a cave in 878, he didn’t die and they believed that he would return as the Mahdi (rightly guided one) to save the world.
|The Eight Fold Path:
|i. Right Views ii. Right Intention iii. Right Speech iv. Right Action v. Right Livelihood vi. Right Effort vii. Right Mindfulness viii. Right Concentration
|Wheel of the Law:
|the wheel represents the endless cycle or rebirth, which can only be escaped by means of the Buddha’s teachings.The wheel’s three basic parts are symbols of the “three trainings” in Buddhist practice:
|Wheel of the Law: (cont'd)
|The hub symbolizes moral discipline, which stabilizes the mind. The spokes (8) represents wisdom which is applied to defeat ignorance. The rim represents training in concentration, which holds everything together.
|Why do the Buddhists only travel 8 months out of the year?
|The other four months are monsoon season and travel becomes impossible.
|What is Tripitaka, and what are the 3 sections of it?
|Gautama Buddha’s scriptures or canons. 1. Conduct- rules of behavior 2. Discourses- collection of sermons and doctrines 3. Supplementary Discipline-metaphysical elucidations of ideas presented in the discourses
|Theravada Buddhism is?
|They believed in? Teaching of the elders, claimed that they correctly followed Buddha’s original teachings
|Equated as the blowing out or extinction of craving and suffering; was the only constant in the universe
|What are the 4 sublime moods?
|Love, pity, joy, and serenity
|the self-reliance of achieving Nirvana
|helped believers achieve Nirvana (similar to achieving salvation through Jesus)
|worthy of becoming a Buddha
|Mahayana Buddhism is? What are the 3 bodies they believe in?
|Developed to meet the needs of believers as most people feel inadequate. 1. Created Body had been on Earth 2. The Body of Essence eternally permeated the universes 3. Body of Bliss(Amitabha) is the presiding deity of the happy land (heaven)
|founded the religion Buddism, born around 566 BCE, he was the son of a chief of the Sakyas; birth name Siddhartha; meditates for 49 days and nights
|great hero; founder of Janism; born around 540 BCE to the Kshatriya class; meditated for 12 years
|Behaving in nonviolent ways to all living things
|What is Jainism?
|Holds that there are an infinite number of souls in the universe, all fundamentally equal but differing to the extent to which the accumulation of karmic matter from one life to another had dulled the original soul.
|What is Jainism premise?
|Salvation is found only when the soul is freed from matter, only then can it attain Nirvana
|What is Buddhism and what is its key premise?
|Believe the world is filled with suffering and the only way to be free of this suffering is three Nirvana.
|Liu Chi /Han Kao-tsu is? What is unique about him?
|The 1st commoner to ascend to the throne in 202 BCE. He identified with common people and soldiers which won him support with the people.
|What are the 2 halves of Han Dynasty?
|Western (Former Han) and Eastern (Later Han)
|119. Emperor Wu the Martial is known for which accomplishments?
|Began a campaign for war and regained territory of the Pearl River Valley, Red River Valley, Manchuria, and Korea. Also defeated the Hsiung-nu and forced them out of China
|Who were the main enemies of the Han dynasty?
|What are some aspects of the Han Government?
|Han emperors had a centralized, bureaucratic government headed by a prime minister. Bureau and ministries had a defined function. Local government unit was a county; 10-20 counties were formed a Commandery or Province headed by a governor
|What is the major trade export for the Han dynasty? What are their major imports?
|Export: silk Imports: wool, linen fabric, amber, coral, Syrian glass, Egyptian papyrus, and wines from Romans
|How was Confucianism incorporated into the government and educational system?
|Emperor Wu declared Confucianism the official state philosophy and banned students of legalism from government services. The state university has a Confucianism based curriculum.
|What are the Shih Chi and The History of the Former (western) Han Dynasty?
|The Han dynasties greatest literary accomplishments of historical writings; comprehensive history of the Chinese world
|What is a Sangha?
|Who is Fa-hsien?
|The 1st recorded Buddhist Monk to travel to India to study and collect canons, after his return to China he translated the Sutras and his journals gave valuable insight into the history and geography of India and other lands he encountered
|What does the phrase ‘Three ways to one goal’ refer to?
|The fact that there was duality between Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism and most practiced all three concurrently
|What are the 3 vital Chinese Mahayana Buddhist schools that emerged in china and what focus did each have?
|1.T’ien-t’ai 2.Pure Land Sect 3.Ch’an
|reflected synthesis and harmony and recognized the validity of each sutra in its place
|Pure Land Sect:
|taught salvation or rebirth could be attained through faith which was expressed through the calling the Buddha’s name
|stressed meditation and enlightenment and was similar to Taoism in philosophy
|Who is Yang Chien and what did he do?
|A Chinese noble man from the north proclaimed himself emperor and established the Sui dynasty in 581
|Li Yuan did what?
|Quickly established a new dynasty amid the chaos; ruled from 618-907
|What is the equal field policy?
|Under this policy, all land belonged to the state or the emperor who distributed about 18 acres of land to every able body man between 21 to 59. Widows and elderly received lesser amounts and they were required to pay taxes on the allotment.
|The Sung Dynasty were what type of people? What were the 2 parties in the Sung dynasty and how did they settle disputes?
|They were pacifist and humane; they had 2 political parties conservatives and innovators, both groups settled their differences through political and philosophical debates.
|Obsidian and jadeite are and is used for?
|was volcanic glass used to make razor sharp tools and weapons; a special variety of jade used for religious rituals
|What is the sacred ball game?
|Athletic contest in which the object was to put a heavy rubber ball through a tight fitting ring without using hands
|Which animals did the Olmecs identify with their gods?
|The eagle, serpent, jaguar, and alligator
|What are the 3 main temple complexes of the Olmec?
|1. San Lorenzo 2. La Venta 3. Tres Zapotes
|1400-2200 BCE, they were living in agricultural villages cultivating maize crops. They supplemented their diet with seafood, game, and dogs.
|400BCE, arose in present day Mexico; one of the largest urban centers in the world; had reliable water supply; ceremonial buildings; ball courts and two great pyramids.
|Who/what is the great goddess?
|A god who provided the springs of water
|Who used Venus to calculate cycles? What cycles were calculated?
|Teotihuacans; Venus had a 584 day cycle and that five of these cycles corresponds to eight 365 day years. They formulated an almanac of 2920 days
|Star Wars refers to?
|Were war campaigns designed mainly to get sacrificial victims
|400 BCE, lived in a dense forests lowlands; main food source was maize and agriculture supported their population
|What is the raised field system?
|They built canals alongside raised plots of earth and the plants drew moisture from the canals.
|Who developed the mathematical calendar? What is it?
|Mayans; they used a base-20 mathematics system with a dot for units and a bar for fives. A sign represented zero.
|What is the long count and who developed it?
|The Mayans believed that after a certain period of time, a new creation would occur. They believed that previous creations and destruction's had already occurred.
|called themselves Tenocha or Mexica were a nomadic tribe that had wandered into the area and attempted to settle on the share of Lake Texacco
|The Aztec language; became the official language of the areas controlled by them
|King Moctezuma II is known for?
|Sacrificing 40,000 people when he claimed the throne
|What was the paradox of Mesoamerican civilizations?
|They were sophisticated and intelligent. Employed advanced mathematical and complex calendar systems, but they were technologically backward, lacking metal weapons, the wheel, large draft animals and heavy transportation.
|How are the Scandinavian Merchants described?
|As the primary merchants of Northern Europe; they traded in grains, butter, cheese, fish, timber, metal, and salt.
|What were the reason(s) for the Crusades?
|Christians believed that the Jews were responsible for the death of Christ; they thought they were active agents for the Satan; that they murdered Christian boys and used their blood for secret rituals; and that they poisoned wells and spread diseases.
|What is significant about the 3 descendants that reigned after Li Yuan?
|1.Tai-tsung: 2.Kao-tsung: 3.Lady Wu:
|ruled from 626-649; established Chinese authority across Mongolia, Tibet, Afghanistan, and central Asia; tolerated all religions but influenced Confucianism in government and education;
|ruled from 649-683; was infatuated with his father youngest concubine Lady Wu
|she killed and deposed of her sons to be China’s only woman emperor. She ruled until she was 80.
|The epic of Gilgamesh relates to which Christian story? What are the differences between the two?
|The Epic of Gilgamesh relates to Noah’s ark. They share many similarities like the storm, flood, and gods destroying mankind out of their frustration with them. The two stories also show many differences like in Noah’s ark, the storm lasted for 40 days an
|What do the laws say about slaves? What punishments do they face for which acts?
|Slaves were treated as property to their owners and whatever crimes they committed without violence has to be paid off by the owner. The owner then punishes the slave on his own account. If the slave committed a violent act, whatever he did will be done
|What kingdom is King Piye from and which kingdom did he conquer in 700 B.C.E?
|King Pye is from the Nubian Kingdom and they conquered the Egyptian city Memphis
|What is a scribe? What does the author say about other professions?
|A scribe is people who know and occupation is the skill of writing. The washer man is weak from his work; the pot maker of pots is dirty with clay; the cobbler wreaks of odor and has dirty hands;
|What do his analects say about life and government?
|He believed that human nature was good and can be improved by education. He also emphasizes honoring one’s ancestors and elders, ruling by example, and treating people fairly.
|What are the 3 (three) lessons for women?
|a.Let a women modestly yield to others; it is her duty to humble herself to others b.Let a women retire late to bed every night; it is her duty to be industrious c.Let a women be correct in manner and upright in character in order to serve her husband
|What vengeful act(s) does Medea commit?
|She kills the king and his daughter along with her own sons
|What does Medea say of a woman’s plight?
|Their man gives honor to another women’s bed
|Aristotle discusses the management of Households. What are the elements of the household?
|Master and slave, husband and wife, father and children;
|What arguments does Aristotle make in the case of the slave?
|Slavery was a natural condition and that some people were destined to be slaves and others to be masters
|Explain the reasoning behind the law regarding children born after a father’s death?
|They is no guarantee of proof that this is the child’s father.
|What type of people do these laws protect in society who may not be able to protect themselves?
|Women, children, and slaves
|What was the main reason behind the Hortensia's speech?
|Denunciation of the proposal for Being taxed to fund a war
|What was the outcome of Hortensia's speech?
|They reduced the women who were supposed to give their property from 1400 to 400
|Which religion invaded Axum by the 4th century?
|Which dynasty claimed descent from King . Solomon and Queen Sheba?
|The Guanshiyin is the Chinese counterpart of what Buddhist figure?
|The Hadith outlines what?
|Guidance for personal conduct and behavior, a framework of Islamic law, and important examples of the way that Muhammad and earlier followers lived.
|What are some examples of the Hadith?
|a.109. Reconciliation is best b.110. Be mindful of your duty to Allah and try to promote accord between yourselves c.113. Continue to be kindly gracious towards the believers
|In the district of Kamul, what does he say of the people’s treatment of visitors?
|The men give their wives and daughters away to the guest to do whatever they please with a small payment
|Who is Kankan Musa and what is he known for?
|Was a ruler of the Empire of Mali and he is best known for making the voyage of hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
|What did Kankan Musa wife ask of him? How was this request resolved?
|She asked for a river to bathe in; The slaves had dugged deep into the dessert ground until the water appeared
|Mallinke and Wangara means?
|Warriors; the merchants who carries goods from place to place
|The Metal age signifies which elements?
|Iron, copper, brass, and bronze
|What do the two groups say of their origins?
|Their ancestors descended on a chain from Heaven
|What are the classification of states and explain the differences between them?
|Centralized states had developed a political system based on checks and balances of the king while non-centralized were smaller and village like
|What are the problems with clearly defining the slave trade?
|The results are ofter confused with the understanding of various forms as slaves for examples, Africans regarded their servants as slaves.
|How was enslavement accomplished?
|Through war, raids, kidnapping, judicial and voluntary process
|What are some of the different functions slaves encompassed?
|From social to economic, plantations to mines, and from domestic works to being used as human sacrifices
|What did the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli (the Sun) require?
|Mississippian societies consist of?
|Fortified political and ceremonial centers and outlying villages