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Ferrous Metals

Material and Processes

Any alloy metal with iron as its chief ingredient is considered Ferrous
Steel is iron with carbon added
SAE classifies steel with a four digit number: 1st = primary alloying agent, 2nd = percent of alloying agent and the last two are? the percent in hundreths of carbon
What does normalizing do? Relieves inner stresses
What should be done after welding a piece of steel? Normalizing to relieve inner stresses
Normalizing is applicable to only ferrous metal
What is hardening? Heated to critical temperature and cooled quickly
Waht are three types of quenching mediums? water, oil, or brine
Which is the fastest quenching medium? brine
What is tempering? Reduces the brittleness imparted by hardening
Tempering always follows what? Hardening
Name the two methods of casehardening. Carburizing and Nitriding
What produces a hard wear-resistant surface, or case, over a strong, tough core? Casehardening
Forms a thin layer of high-carbon steel on low carbon steel Carburizing
Placed in a 1000*F furnace with ammonia gas. The hydrogen burns up and the nitrogen is absorbed into the metal. Nitriding
Name the three methods of carburizing. Pack, Gas, and Liquid carburizing
Packed in a container with charcoal or some other mineral rich in carbon Pack carburizing
Burning oil, wood or other material in the furnace area and carbon monoxide is introduced Gas carburizing
Placed in molten salt bath that contains the chemical required to produce a carbon reaction Liquid carburizing
Differs from carburizing in that a part is first hardened, tempered, and then ground to its finished dimensions before it is casehardened. Nitriding
Surrounded by ammonia gas Nitriding
What aircraft engine parts are commonly nitrided for increased wear resistance? Crankshaft and cylinder walls
Brinell Hardness Test Test for hardness of metal
Why is steel tempered after being hardened? To relieve its internal stresses and reduce its brittleness
What is descriptive of the annealing process of steel during and after it has been annealed? Slow cooling; Low strength