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Separation of Powers The separation of powers, is a model for the governance of both democratic & federative states.
Habeas corpus A writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
Executive Branch the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws.
Legislative Branch The branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating.
Judicial Branch the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice.
Judicial Review (in the US) Review by the Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act.
Veto A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body: "a veto over appointments to key posts".
Confirmation The action of confirming something or the state of being confirmed.
Appeal Apply to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court
Treaty A formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries.
Amendments A minor change in a document.
Bill An amount of money owed for goods supplied or services rendered, set out in a printed or written statement of charges.
Franchise An authorization granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities.
Due process Fair treatment through the normal judicial system, esp. as a citizen's entitlement.
Equal protection of the law The Equal Protection Clause, part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, provides that "no state shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws".
Necessary and proper clause The Necessary and Proper Clause (also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause"Constitutional Clauses & Their Nicknames."
States’ rights States' rights in U.S. politics refers to the political powers that U.S. states possess in relation to the federal government, as guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment of the Bill of Rights.
reserved powers The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
enumerated powers The enumerated powers are a list of items found in Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution which set forth the authoritative capacity of the United States Congress
implied powers Implied powers, in the United States, are those powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution) which, while not stated, are seemed to be implied by powers expressly stated.
federalism The federal principle or system of government.
republican government Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy.
socialism A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
monarchy A form of government with a monarch at the head.
oligarchy A small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
theocracy A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
democracy A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
constituents A member of a constituency.
incumbents The holder of an office or post.
representative A person chosen or appointed to act or speak for another or others, in particular.
senator A member of a senate.
equal justice Equal justice under law is a phrase engraved on the front of the United States Supreme Court building in Washington D.C. This phrase was apparently first written in 1932 by the architectural firm that designed the building
Economic Growth steady growth in the productive capacity of the economy (and so a growth of national income.
Private Property Rights is the employment, control, ownership, ability to dispose of, and bequeath land,
capital and other forms of property by legal persons and privately owned firms.[1] Private property is distinguishable from public property and collective property
Physical Capital In economics, physical capital or just 'capital' refers to any manufactured asset that is applied production, such as machinery, buildings, or vehicles. In economic theory, physical capital is one of the three primary factors of production.
Human Capital The skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country
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