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NWHSU Bioch I Exam 3

NWHSU Biochem I Exam #3

What is a Glycoconjugate? Composite of a carbohydrate and a protein(peptide)
What is a Glycoprotein? - ≥Oligosaccharide attached to a protein - Common in membrane proteins - For communication. Huge variety of oligosaccharides - eg. Blood Type, hormones, antibodies, secreted proteins(milk proteins)
What are some examples of glycosidic bonds? - Acetal - Ketal - Bonds between carb & AA r-group - Bonds between carb & lipid
What are Proteoglycans? - Polysaccharide(s) connected to proteins - Structure in extracellular matrix - In connective tissue
What are Glycolipids? - In cytoplasm membranes - eg. Blood Types
Glycoconjugates: If you have a smaller carbohydrate then what do you have? Oligosaccharide: -Protein = Glycoprotein -Lipid = Glycolipid They are in membranes communication
Glycoconjugates: If you have a larger carbohydrate then what do you have? Polysaccharide: -Protein = Proteoglycan-extracellular matrix, storage of H2O,joint lubercation -Lipid = Lipopolysaccharide-outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
What is a Lipopolysaccharide? - Outer membrane of gram negative bacteria - Recognized by humman immune system - Variations of building blocks in polysaccharides ---> different serotypes - Lipid acts a toxin ---> reaction from immune system
Describe the Sugar Code? -Spec. interactions between distinct oligosaccharides and receptors -Large number of possible oligosaccharides -Large # of building blocks -Few restrictions w/ respect to size -Branching (unristricted) -∂&ß connections combined w/ OH in various posit
What are Lectins? Proteins with a specific ligand binding site for a specific oligosaccharide(receivers of information) -Cell-Cell recognition -Transfer of hormone signals -Adhesion between cells
What is the basic structure of Nucleotides? Building blocks
What are the 3 distinct components of nucleotides? 1. Pentose 2. 1-3 phosphate 3. Base
What are the 2 base components of nucleotides? 1. Purine (Adenine & Guanine)-All Good 2. Pyrimidine (Cytosine, Uricile & Thymine)CUT
There is a(n)______ bond between monophosphate and _______. ester, pentose
Bases: _____:Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil How many rings are present? Pyrimidines, 1
Bases: _____:Adenine, Guanine How many rings are present? Purines, 2
What is the function of nucleotides? 1. Building blocks for DNA & RNA synthesis 2. Energy currency of biological systems(ATP) 3. Chemical links in homonal signals ("2nd messengers") 4. Structural components of several coenzymes(NAD÷, FAD, coenzyme A)
______bonds link successive nucleotides in nucleic acids. Phosphodiester
Backbone begins at___end/site and terminates at___end/site. 5^1, 3^1
There are phosphodiester linkages in the covalent backbone of _______and________. DNA, RNA
What are the 3 ways to express nucleic acids in a simplified manner? 1. pA-C-G-T-Aoh 2. pApCpGpTpA 3. pACGTA
Hydrogen bonding is the______ _______of the double helix(as well as base stacking) stabilizing force
Base stacking is the ______ ______of adjacent bases. hydrophobic interaction
James_____& Francis_____(Publication in Nature) was in the year_____ Watson, Crick, 1953
Maurice______received the Nobel Prize in the year______ Wilkins, 1962
______Franklin also credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA in the year of ______ Rosalind, 1953
______are alterations in DNA that permanently alter genetic information Mutations
What are the two types of mutations? 1. Spontaneous 2. External Factors
Describe spontaneous mutations? Two types: a. deamination=loss of amino group(-NH2), happens 1/10^7 every 24hrs b. depurination=purine-pentose bond breaks, happens 1/10^8 every 24hrs
[choose one]_________(deamination, depurination) occurs when the glycosidic bond between pentose and_______(DNA, RNA, base, ATP) is broken. depurination, base
Describe external factor mutation? Physical forces UV radiation-makes covalent bonds with bases Ionizing radiation-x-ray+gamma ray -braking of covalent bonds -opens rings of bases -breaks bonds in backbone -formation of ROS(Reactive Oxygen Species)
Describe Chemical forces? Deaminating agents: nitrous acid HNO2 -Nitrosamine - found in cured meats Oxidative agents: -H2O2, oxygen radicals,<---quenched by antioxidants -Origin: -Ionizing radiation -Aerobic cellular respiration •exercise •infections •growing kids
Lipids: -Diverse with regard to______ -->have little to no ______ ______ -Diverse with regard to ________ Structure Water solubility Function
What are 5 functions of Lipids? •Structure: (cell) membranes •energy storage •energy source •coenzymes or prosthetic groups •signal transduction •hormones(regulation, communication) •pigments(retinal from ß-carotene)
Storage lipids consists of _____and______ fatty acids, covalently connected by a(n)______bond. Glycerol (also known as triglycerol or triacylglycerol) 3 ester
Structure of Fatty Acids: Two Types 1.______-carboxyl group combined with ______or aliphatic tail 4-36 carbons in length with no double bonds. 2.______-has 1 or more double bonds and could be cis or trans configuration. Saturated FA, hydrocarbon Unsaturated FA
In Unsaturated FA's, which configuration is found in plants & fatty fish? cis
In Unsaturated FA's _____is the "unhealthy" fat structure. trans
Which FA is needed for proper function of membranes & cant be replaced by TFA. a. Saturated FA b. Unsaturated FA b. Unsaturated FA
What are 2 sources of trans-fatty acids? 1. In meat: bacterial activity in ruminating animals like cows 2. Human-developed process: Partial Hydrogenation -->use oils for margarine - solid at room temp due to less double bonds & trans-config of remaining double bonds
Trans FA behave a lot like______? Saturated FA's
Saturated FA's have_____hydrophobic interactions. Unsaturated FA's have______hydrophobic interactions. Many Less
Double bonds in cis-config. _____=pro-inflamitory _____=anti-inflamitory Ω6 Ω3
Name this FA: 18:3^Δ9,12,15 / CH3CH2C=CCH2C=CCH2C=C(CH2)7COOH / Omega-3, essential Alpha-linolenic acid
Name this FA: 16:0 / CH3(CH2)14COOH / End product of fatty acid synthesis Palmitic acid
Name this FA: 20:5^Δ5,8,11,14,15 / CH3(CH2C=C)5(CH2)3COOH / Omega-3, precursor, conditionally essential Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Name this FA: 18:2^Δ9,12 / CH3(CH2)4C=CCH2C=C(CH2)7COOH / Omega-6, essential Linoleic acid
Name this FA: 20:4^Δ5,8,11,14 / CH3(CH2)3(CH2C=C)4(CH2)3COOH /Omega-6, precursor for regulatory compounds in inflammation, conditionally essential Arachidonic acid
Name this FA: 22:6^Δ4,7,10,13,16,19 / CH3(CH2C=C)6(CH2)2COOH / Omega-3, conditionally essential Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Describe Triacylglycerols -In liver and adipose tissue -Glycerol = backbone -Condensation reaction -Ester formation -Hydrolysis – in small intestine -Completely hydrophobic
Energy storage: List differences of carbs vs. fats -Fats have higher energy content per weight -Fats: longer-term energy storage, slow mobilization process -Fats have insulating properties -Glycogen: short term energy storage, quickly accessible -Each gram of glycogen has ~2g of water associated with
What are the 2 basic types of membrane lipids? 1. (glycero)phospholipids – majority of membrane lipids 2. Sphingolipids – glycolipids
_______lipids = amphipathic Membrane
What are Glycerophospholipids? -Glycerol backbone -3 ester bonds -Phosphate group -2 fatty acids – which form the lipid bilayer •Hydrophilic head •Hydrophobic tail
Describe Choline? –CH2-CH2-N(CH3)3+ -Typically associated with lipids
Phosphatidylcholine =_______ lecithin
Describe Sphingolipids? - Sphingosine backbone - Amide bond -Hydrophobic tail -Hydrophilic head -1 fatty acid -Glucosylcerebroside, lactosylceramide, ganglioside GM2 = oligosaccharides (water soluble)
Sphingomyelin =_______ choline component
Storage lipids(neutral): What are the components of Triacylglycerols? Glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acid chains
Membrane lipids(Polar): - Phospholipids •What are the components of Glycerophospholipids? Glycerol backbone with 2 fatty acid chains and 1 PO4-alcohol chain
Membrane lipids(Polar): - Phospholipids •What are the components of Sphingophospholipids? - Sphingosine backbone with 1 FA chain and 1 PO4-choline chain - Sphingomyeline
Membrane lipids(Polar): -Glycolipids •What are the components of Sphingolipids? Sphingosine backbone with 1 FA and 1 mono or oligosaccharide chain
Membrane lipids(Polar): -Glycolipids •What are the components of Galactolipids(sulfolipids)? - Glycerol backbone with 2 FAs and 1 mono or disaccharide-SO4 chain - Only in plants
Membrane lipids(Polar): -Archaebaterial ether lipids have________linkage Ether linkage -See chart on page 9 of lipids chapter
Ether-lipids: -Describe Membrane Lipids - In cytoplasmic membrane of heart and muscle cells (plasmalogen) - Ether bond - Hydrophobic tail - Hydrophilic head – choline and phosphate components
Ether-lipids: -Describe Platelet activating factor -(regulatory compound) -In blood -Promotes blood clotting -Released by WBCs -Functions related to immunity: •Release of serotonin (vasoconstriction) •Upregulation of inflammation •Impacts allergic reactions -Pregnancy:
Isoprenoids: -Isoprene=______ Building Block -Used to make________ -C5 -Cholesterol
Isoprenoids: -Cholesterol •Hydrophobic •Hydrophilic hydroxy group – makes cholesterol________ •Recognize typical structure for steroids amphipathic
Describe Steroid hormones: Endocrine: -Produced in special glands and carried in blood to target tissues
Describe Eicosanoids: (“Eicosa” = 20) Paracrine: - Produced and acts locally - Derived from C20 omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids
What are some biologically active isoprenoid compounds? - Vitamin E - Vitamin K - Warfarin - Ubiquinone
Name 3 Eicosanoid derivatives: (“Eicosa” = 20) 1. Prostaglandin (PGE1) 2. Thromboxane A2 3. Leukotriene A4 • All listed are pro-inflammatory regulators • Enzyme used = cyclooxygenase (COX) blocked NSAIDS
Describe Retinol and Retinal: - vision pigment in eyes - Vitamin A with cis double bond - Retinol - no double bond - AL-->OL enzymatic conversion
Biological membranes and transport: -Composition and architecture •Diameter = ______nm •3 Main components = 1. Phospholipids 2. Protein 3._______ 5-8nm Glcocalyx
List characteristics of the composition and architecture of Biological membranes and transport: - Flexible (cells can change shape – ex: RBCs and capillaries) - Separation of compartments (creating order) - Selectively permeable (proteins) - Membrane bilayer - Hydrophobic core of membrane (in between bilayer)
According to the Fluid Mosaic Model, what structures are located on the outside of the membrane structure? 1. Glycolipid 2. Glycoprotein
According to the Fluid Mosaic Model, what structures are located on the inside(cytoplasm) of the membrane structure? 1. Phospholipids 2. Peripheral protein (non-covalently linked) 3. Integral proteins (single trans-membrane helix) 4. Cholesterol 5. Peripheral protein (covalently linked) 6. Integral protein (multiple trans-membrane helix)
List the 3 types of diffusion for phospholipids in a bilayer? 1. Uncatalyzed transverse diffusion: •“flip-flop” •Very slow 2. Transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase: •Flippase •Fast 3. Uncatalyzed lateral diffusion: •Within layer •Very fast
What are the 2 types of Membrane Proteins? 1. Alpha-Helix 2. Beta-Barrel
Describe Alpha-Helix member proteins - Amino-terminus (N-terminus) on outside - Carboxyl-terminus (C-terminus) on inside - Majority of amino acid R groups are hydrophobic in membrane-spanning alpha-helices
Describe Beta-Barrel membrane proteins - “_______” lining pores in membranes - _______ amino acids to span membrane once - ~20 sections of beta-helical __________ for 1 pore -Ribbons - ~7-9 - polypeptide
Describe additional characteristics Beta-Barrel membrane proteins: - Produced by________ - Gram-negative is in_______ membrane - Bacteria - outer - Creates pores - Staph aureus releases alpha-hemolysin subunits assemble into pores (multi-subunit complexes) - → monocytes and platelets - Alpha-hemolysin toxin = human cytoplasmic membrane – pore is deadly for cell
Created by: BigSauce
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