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NWHSU SNP Exam #2

Spine and Pelvis Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
What kind of curve is present in the sacrum? Kyphotic
The sacral base is located at the _____ and the apex at the _____ Top, bottom
What shape is the sacral base? Oval/round
What direction does the sacral base face? Superior & anterior
What degree is the sacral base oriented at? 41 +/- 7
The superior articular process of the sacrum are: Concave or Convex? Concave
What would have been the body, pedicles, lamina, and tubercles form that what in the sacrum? Sacral canal
The superior articular process of the sacrum face what direction? Posterior & medial
What plane are the superior articular processes mostly in? Coronal
What sacral segments have superior articular process? S1
What is the sacral ala also referred to as? Wings
Where are the sacral ala located in reference to the body? Lateral
Where is a common location for stress fractures in osteoporotic patients? Sacral ala
How many osseous ridges are located on the anterior surface of the sacrum? 4
How many pairs of sacral foramina are present on the anterior surface? 4
How many tubercles are located on the posterior surface of the sacrum? 3-4
The medial crest of the sacrum is located ____ to the foramina Medial
The intermediate crest of the sacrum is located ____ to the foramina Medial
The sacral hiatus is located where on the sacrum? Bottom
The lateral crest of the sacrum is located ____ to the foramina Lateral
Remnant TP’s that have been fused is know as the what? Lateral crest
The auricular surface is located on the ___ surface of the sacrum Lateral
The auricular surface expands from what sacral segments? S1-2
The auricular surface of the sacrum consists of what type of cartilage? Thick hyaline cartilage (3x that of ilium)
What shape is the sacral canal? Triangle
How many segments does the coccyx (usually) have? 4
What direction do the cornu of the coccyx face? Dorsal & Lateral
What bones make up the pelvic girdle? Ilium, Ishium, Pubis
Where are the bones of the pelvic girdle fused? Acetabulum
What is another name for the location where the fusing happens? Triradiate cartilage
At what age does the triradiate cartilage fuse? 16
What shape from above does the iliac crest make? S
What structures does the iliac crest have included on it? Outer lip, Inner lip, Intermediate zone
The ASIS and AIIS are located on what border of the ilium? Anterior
The intercrestal line is in line with what segment in males? L4
The intercrestal line is in line with what segment in females? L5
The auricular surface of the ilium has ____ cartilage than the sacrum? (More, Less, Equal or None) Less
Iliac fossa takes up the anterior ___ of the medial surface of the ilium 2/3
The sacropelvic area takes up the posterior ___ of the medial surface of the ilium 1/3
Where is the false pelvis located? Above iliopectineal line
Where does the sacroiliac ligament attach? Iliac tuberosity
The anterior aspect of the iliac fossa is: Concave or Convex? Convex
The posterior aspect of the iliac fossa is: Concave or Convex? Concave
The iliac fossa serves as an attachment place for which muscle? Iliacus
What muscle attaches below the inferior gluteal line? Rectus femoris
What muscle attaches above the middle gluteal line? Gluteus medius
What muscle attaches below the middle gluteal line? Gluteus minimus
What pelvic part separates the greater and lesser sciatic notch? Ischial spine
What ligament attaches to the ischial spine? Sacrospinalis ligament
Pagents disease is associated with what pelvic part? Pubis
What shape is the symphysis? Oval
What pelvic part is known as the socket? Acetabulum
What direction does the acetabulum face? Lateral, anterior, & inferior
What is the name of the articular surface located in the acetabulum? Lunate surface
What pelvic parts make up the obturator foramen? Ischium & pubis
In women the obturator foramen is Small and triangular
In men the obturator foramen is Large and oval
What covers the majority of the obturator foramen? Membrane
What leaves out of the obturator canal? Blood vessels & Obturator nerve
What spinal segments give rise to the obturator nerve? L2-4
How long does it take for the iliac crest to completely ossify? 1 year
What other structure does the iliac crest ossification correspond with? VB
What is the classification system for evaluating skeletal maturity? Risser’s
The superior pubic ligament extends from which structures? Pubic tubercles
The arcuate pubic ligament extends from which structures? Inferior rami
Which muscle groups extend from midline up and lateral? Splenius
Which muscle group runs parallel to the spine? Spinae
Which muscle group goes from lateral to the midline? Transversospinalis
Which muscle group goes from one vertebral segment to the next? Segmental
All of the following are segmental muscles except: a. Iliocostalis b. Interspinalis c. Intertransversarii d. Rotators a. Iliocostalis
Interspinalis muscles are primarily in which regions? Cervical, thoracic
Interspinalis muscle connects what to what? One SP to then next
Which level is the interspinalis muscle not present? C1/2
What is the action of interspinalis muscles? Extension
Intertransversarii extend between what? TP’s
Which regions are intertransversarii present? Cervical thoracic and Cervical lumbar
What is the action of intertransversarii? Lateral flexion
Rotators can be found in which spinal segments? Thoracic, Cervical, Lumbar
Which segments are the rotators most prominent? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar
Where are the rotators located? TP to SP base of level above
What is the action of the rotator muscles? Segmental rotation
Which muscles are known as posture muscles? Segmental
What is the action of transversospinalis muscles? Contralateral flexion
Which of the following are names of the semispinalis muscles? Cervicis, Thoracis, Capitus
Muscle who’s origin of TP’s (T7-12) and insertion of upper thoracic and lower cervical SP’s? Semispinals Thoracis
Muscle who’s origin TP’s (T5-6) and insertion of C2-C5 SP’s? Semispinails Cervicis
Muscle who’s origin T1-6 TP’s and C4-7 articular pillars and insertion between superior and inferior nuchal lines? Semispinalis Capitus
What is the action of the semispinalis muscles? Extension (bilateral), Lateral flexion, Contralateral rotation
Muscle who’s origin is the posterior sacrum, PSIS, L5 MP, L4 TP’s and insertion of SP’s 2-4 segments above? Multifidus
What is the action of multifidus? Extension (bilateral firing), Rotation to opposite side (unilateral firing)
Which muscls(s) make up the erector spinae? Iliocostalis, Spinalis, Longissimus
What is the largest muscle group of the back? Erector spinae
What muscle group has action of bilateral extension and unilateral flexion to ipsolateral side? Erector spinae
Which muscle is the most lateral of the erector spinae group? Iliocostalis
Which muscle has an origin of the thoracolumbar aponeurosis and an insertion on the lower borders of ribs 6/7-12? Iliocostalis lumborum
Which muscle has an origin at the upper border, angle of ribs 7-12 and an insertion into lower border, angles of ribs 1-6 & C7 TP’s? Ilicostalis thoracis
Which muscle has an origin of the upper borders, angles or ribs 3-6 and an insertion of posterior tubercles of C4-6? Iliocostalis cervicis
Which muscle has an origin on the thoracolumbar aponeurosis and inserts into ribs 3 or 4-12 and thoracic TP’s Longissimus thoracis
Which muscles has an origin of T1-4 TP’s and inserts into C2-6 posterior tubercles? Longissimus cervicis
Which muscle has an origin of T1-4 or 5 TP’s and C4 or 5-7 articular pillars and inserts on posterior mastoids Longissimus capitus
What is the action of Longissimus capitus? Ipsolateral rotation
Action of the longissimus muscles is? Extension, lateral flexion
Which muscle is the smallest and most medial of the erector spinae? Spinalis
Muscles whose origin is T11-12 SP’s and insertion is T4-12 SP’s Spinalis thoracis
Muscle whose origin is C7 SP and lower nuchal ligament Spinalis cervicis
Muscle whose origin is C4-7 articular pillars and T1-6 TP’s and inserts between superior and inferior nuchal lines Spinalis capitus
Which muscle group is the most superficial of the neck? Splenius group
Muscle whose origin is T3-T6 SP’s and inserts into C1-3 posterior tubercles Splenius cervicis
Actions of splenius cervicis Bilateral extension of head, Unilateral rotation of head to ipsilateral side
Muscle whose origin is C7-T3 SP’s and lower nuchal ligament and inserts into mastoid process below superior nuchal line? Splenius capitis
Rectus capitus posterior major and minor, oblique capitis inferior and superior are all muscle apart of which group? Suboccipital group
Muscle whose origin is C2 SP and inserts on the lateral aspect of inferior nuchal line? Rectus capitis posterior major
Muscle whose origin is posterior tubercle of C1 and inserts into the medial aspect of inferior nuchal line? Rectus capitis posterior minor
The action of head extension only belongs to what muscle? Rectus capitis posterior minor
Muscle whose insertion is C2 SP and inserts into C1 TP? Oblique capitis inferior
The action of head rotation only belongs to which muscle? Oblique capitis inferior
Muscle whose origin is C1 TP and inserts into lateral aspect of occiput between superior and inferior nuchal line? Oblique capitis superior
What vessel lies deep within the suboccipital triangle? Vertebral artery
Action of bilateral neck flexion and unilateral contralateral rotation belongs to which muscle? Sternocleidomastoid
Which muscle is involved in torticollis? Sternocleidomastoid
Muscle whose origin is TP’s of C1-4 and inserts into vertebral border of scapula from superior angle to root of spine? Levator scapulae
Action of bilateral neck extension and unilaterally rotates and lateral flex to ipsilateral side or elevates and rotates scapula downward belongs to which muscle? Levator scapulae
Which muscle can bilaterally raise the 1st and 2nd ribs with forced inspiration and unilaterally lateral flex the neck? Scalenes
Muscle whose origin is anterior tubercle of C3-6 TP’s and inserts into the scalene tubercle of 1st rib Anterior scalene
Muscle that is the largest of the scalene group? Middle
Muscles whose origin is posterior tubercles of C3-7 TP’s & C2 TP and inserts into the 1st rib, posterior to the anterior scalene? Middle scalene
Muscle that is associated with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)? Anterior scalene, Middle scalene
Which is the smallest and deepest of the scalenes? Posterior
Muscle whose origin is posterior tubercle of C4-6 TP’s and inserts into 2nd rib Posterior scalene
Longus coli, longus capitis, rectus capitis anterior, & rectus capitis lateralis are all apart of which muscle group? Deep anterior neck muscles
Muscle that is the deepest anterior neck muscle? Longus coli
Action of the longus coli muscle? Neck extension
Muscle whose origin is the anterior tubercle of C6 and inserts into the basilar portion of occiput? Longus capitis
Action of longus capitus? Neck/head flexion
Muscle whose origin is anterior surface lateral masses of C1 and root of C1 TP’s and inserts into the basilar portion of occiput? Rectus capitis anterior
Action of rectus capitis anterior? Flexion of head
Muscle whose origin is TP’s of C1 and inserts into the jugular process of occiput? Rectus capitis lateralis
Action of rectus capitis lateralis? Lateral flexion of head to ipsilateral side
Muscle whose origin is posterior iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament and inserts into the TP’s of L1-4 and 12th rib Quadratus lumborum
Unilaterally, ipsilateral lateral flexion when hip is fixed and elevates pelvis on same side when spine is fixed; bilaterally, stabilizes spine and assists expiration are all actions of which muscle? Quadratus lumborum
Which muscle contributes to hyperlordosis? Psoas major
Muscle whose origin are TP’s and lateral VB/IVD’s from T12-L5 and inserts into the lesser trochanter of the femur? Psoas major
Flexion and external rotation of femur as well as flexion of lumbar spine are actions of which muscle? Psoas major
Muscle whose origin is the lateral aspect of T12 VB and inserts into the iliopectineal eminence? Psoas minor
Action of posas minor is? Lumbar flexion
Muscle whose origin is the iliac fossa and insertion of lesser trochanter? Iliacus
Hip flexion and external rotation of actions of which muscle? Iliacus
What transfers tensile loads from one bone to another? Ligament
What percent stretch causes microtrauma? 4%
What percent stretch can cause significant damage to large ligaments? 25%
What do ligaments contain that inhibit or stimulate muscle contraction? Proprioceptors
Visceral ligaments connect organs to what? Organs
Ligaments that have more stretch to them have what color fibers? Yellow
What ligament(s) run the length of the spine? ALL, PLL, Ligamentum flava
Which ligament runs from the anterior VB of C2 to the sacrum? ALL
Which ligament connects the mid-portion of each VB? ALL
What region is the ALL the thickest? Thoracic
Which ligament is associated with DISH? ALL
Which ligament helps prevent excessive extension of the spine? ALL
Which ligament extends from posterior body of C2 to the sacrum? PLL
The tectorial membrane is a continuation of which ligament? PLL
The PLL attaches to the? IVD, Margins of VB
Where is the PLL denticulate? Lower thoracic, upper lumbar
What motion does the PLL inhibit? Excessive flexion of the spine
Which ligament extends from C2 to sacrum and connects the laminae? Ligamentum flavum
Which ligament provides the posterior boundary for central canal? Ligamentum flavum
The ligamentum flavum stretches _____ % with spinal flexion 35-45
Which ligament goes from C7 to the sacrum and expands into nuchal ligament and blends into interspinous ligament? Supraspinous ligament
This ligament spans from the root of spinous process to apex? Interspinous ligament
Interspinous ligament limits what movement? Flexion
The intertransverse ligament extends from which segment to which segment? C1-L5
The intertransverse ligament limits which motion(s)? Lateral flexion, Rotation
Which ligament goes from C1/2 through L5/S1 and its fibers are perpendicular to the facet joints? Articular capsules
This upper cervical ligament goes from the basilar aspect of occiput to posterior body of C2 inside the spinal canal? Tectorial membrane
Protecting the cord from compression by the dens is the function of which ligament? Tectorial membrane
What is the transverse ligament also known as? Cruciate ligament
What are some conditions that can disrupt the transverse ligament? Trauma, Inflammatory arthritis, Down’s syndrome
What is another name for the alar ligament? Check ligament
Which ligament checks or prevents excessive rotation? Alar ligament
Which ligament stabilizes the dens? Apical ligament
Which ligament is between the alar ligaments? Apical ligaments
Which ligament is from the upper border, posterior arch of C1 to posterior margin of foramen magnum? Posterior atlanto occipital
Which ligament forms an arch for vertebral artery, vein, and C1 spinal nerve? Posterior atlanto occipital ligament
Which ligament may also be referred to as the arcuate ligament on x ray? Posterior atlanto occipital ligament
This ligament goes from the posterior arch of C1 to the lamina of C2? Posterior atlanto axial ligament
This ligament goes from the jugular process of occiput to TP of C1? Lateral atlanto occipital ligament
This ligament goes from the anterior margin of foramen magnum to upper border of anterior arch of C1 Anterior atlanto occipital ligament
What ligament is also known as the epistrophic ligament? Anterior atlanto axial ligament
This ligament goes from anterior arch of atlas to anterior body of axis? Anterior atlanto axial ligament
This ligament goes from the EOP to the C1 posterior tubercle and C2-C7 SP’s? Nuchal ligament
Which lumbopelvic ligament is a continuation of the PLL? Posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Which ligament is the strongest? Sacroiliac ligament
Which ligament holds margins of the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and ilium together? Articular ligament
Which ligament connects the ASIS to the pubic tubercles? Inguinal ligament
List the muscles that produce contralateral rotation of the spine Rotatores Semispinalis Multifidus Sternocleidomastoid
List the muscles that produce ipsilateral rotation Longissimus capitus Splenius - Cervicis - Capitus Suboccipitals (all together) - Oblique capitus inferior
List the muscles that primarily produce lateral flexion (little/no rotation) Intertransversarii Iliocostalis - (lateral position does not allow for much rotation) Longissimus - Thoracis and cervicis mostly Oblique capitus superior Levator Scapula (with scapula fixed) Scalenes Quadratus lumborum (with pelvis fixed)
Arrange this list of muscles from most deep to most superficial: POSTERIOR: Oblique capitus inferior Intertransversarii Multifidus Longissimus Splenius Quadratus lumborum Splenius Intertransversarii Longissimus Quadratus lumborum Oblique capitus inferior Multifidus
Arrange this list of muscles from most deep to most superficial: ANTERIOR: Rectus capitus anterior Longus capitis Anterior Scalene Sternocleidomastoid Anterior Scalene Rectus capitus anterior Sternocleidomastoid Longus capitus
What are flexors of the Head and Neck? Longus Colli, Longus Capitis, Rectus Capitis Anterior, Scalenes (Anterior, Sternocleidomastoid)
What are the extensors of the Head and Neck? Erector Spinae (all), Obliquus Capitis Superior, Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Splenius (Capitis) (Cervicis), Sternocleidomastoid, Transversospinalis(semispinalis, rotatores, interspinales)
What are the muscles that primarily produce lateral flexion (little/no rotation)? Intertransversarii Iliocostalis (lateral position does not allow for much rotation) Longissimus Thoracis and cervicis mostly Oblique capitus superior Levator Scapula (with scapula fixed) Scalenes Quadratus lumborum (with pelvis fixed)
What are the rotators of the Head and Neck? Longus Colli, Obliquus Capitis Inferior, Obliquus Capitis Superior, Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Splenius (capitis, cervicis), Sternocleidomastoid, Transversospinalis (semispinalis, rotatores)
What are the Flexors of the Trunk? External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Psoas Major, Rectus Abdominis
What are the Extensors of the Trunk? Erector Spinae (all) Transversospinalis (semispinalis, rotatores, interspinales)
What are the Lateral Flexors of the Trunk? Erector Spinae (all), External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transversospinalis (intertransversarii), Psoas Major Quadratos Lumborum
What are the Rotators of the Trunk? External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transversospinalis (semispinalis, rotatores)
What are the contra lateral rotation of the spine? Rotatores, Semispinalis, Multifidus, Sternoceidomastoid
What are the ipsilateral flexors? Erector Spinae, Iliocostalis, Longissimus
What flexes the neck neck and head head? neck flexion: Longus Coli, neck/head flexion: Longus Capitas, head flexion: Rectus Capitis Anterior
What muscle externally rotates the femur? Psoas Major
What originates at TPs and lateral VBs, and inserts at the lesser trochanter of femur? Psoas Major
What muscle unilaterally rotates and lateral flex to ipsilateral side or elevates and rotates scapula downward? Levator Scapula
What muscles produce ipsilateral rotation? Longissimus Capitus Suboccipitals (all together especially Oblique Capitus Inferior) Splenius Cervicis & Capitus
What are the Suboccipital Muscles? Rectus Capitus Posterior (Major and Minor) Oblique Capitus Inferior Oblique Capitus Superior
What is the Rectus Capitus Posterior Minor Action? head extension only
What is the Oblique Capitus Inferior Action? head rotation only
True or False: the Oblique Capitus Inferior doesn't go to the occiput? True
What muscles originate and insert SP to SP? Interspinalis (not in thoracic region only cervicle and lumbar) Spinalis -thoracics and spinalis (C7 SP and nuchal ligament) not cervicis
What muscles originate and insert SP to TP? Oblique Capitus Inferior
What muscles originate and insert TP to TP? Intertransversarii (not in thoracic only cervicle and lumbar)
What muscles originate and insert TP to SP? Rotatores-Long and Short(from TP to SP above, most prominent in thoracic) Semispinalis-Thoracics, Cervicis, Capitus Multifidus (originates from L4 TP's and sacrum, PSIS, L5 mamillary
The scalenes originate on the anterior tubercle of C3-C7 TP's which ribs do they insert on? Anterior Scalene: 1st rib Middle Scalene: 1st rib Posterior Scalene: 2nd rib
What muscles originate and insert SP to nuchal line of occiput? Splenius Capitis (inserts below superior nuchal line) Rectus Capitus Posterior Major (inserts at lateral aspect of inferior nuchal line) Rectus Capitus Posterior Minor originates at posterior tubercle of C1 and inserts at medial aspect of nuchal line)
What muscles originate and insert TP to nuchal line of occiput? Semispinalis -Capitus and Spinalis, Oblique Capitus Superior (all insert between superior and inferior nuchal lines) Oblique Capitus Superior
There are 3 muscles in the Segmental Group (from one vertebrae to the next), what are they? Interspinalis, Intertransversarii, Rotatores (Long and Short)
There are 2 muscles in the Transversospinalis Group (originate laterally and move to midline), what are they? Semispinalis, Multifidus
There are 3 muscles in the Erector Spinae Group (run parallel to spinal column), what are they? Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Spinalis
There are 2 muscles in the Splenius Group (longer muscles originating at the midline and run laterally and upward), what are they? Splenius Cervicis, Splenius Capitis
There are 4 Suboccipital Muscles, what are they? Rectus Capitus Posterior Minor Rectus Capitus Posterior Major Oblique Capitus Inferior Oblique Capitus Superior
Created by: BigSauce