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UKCD Histo Female Re

test objective answers to female reproductive system

QuestionAnswer
Classify the lining epithelium of the ovary. A modified peritoneum - simple low cuboidal epithelium
What layer lies just below peritoneum lining? Tunica albuginea.
How is the remainder of the ovary structured? Into an outer cortex and inner medulla.
In what state are the majority of the primary oogonia stored? As primary oocytes (arrested in the prophase step of meiosis I).
List the 4 main forms of oogonia within the ovary prior to ovulation. Primordial follicles; primary follicles; secondary (antral) follicles; mature (Graafian) follicles.
List the components of a primordial ovarian follicle. A primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicular cells
What cells surround each primordial follicle? A thickened layer of follicular cells that have become cuboidal in shape and are referred to as granulosa cells.
What is the characteristic morphological feature of a primary follicle? The appearance of the zona pellucida (an amorphous substance that separates the oocyte from the surrounding follicular cells).
What are the stromal cells doing in this phase? They organize around the follicle into an inner theca interna (highly vascularized) and outer theca externa (fibrous CT).
What is the zona pellucida? An amorphous layer separating the oocyte from the surrounding follicular cells.
What is the characteristic morophological features of a secondary follicle? The appearance of a fluid-filled liquor folliculi (spaces) within the granulosa cell layer.
What is the cumulus oophorus? The primary oocyte srrounded by granulosa cells projecting out into the liquor filled antrum.
What is the corona radiata? The single layer of granulosa cells immediately surrounding the primary oocyte.
What is the characteristic morphological features of a mature follicle? A primary oocyte, corona radiata and associated follicle cells floating free in the liquor-filled antrum.
What is the stigma? A avascular area between the mature follicle and the surface of the ovary through which the oocyte will burst free into the peritoneal cavity.
What is a corpus luteum? The remaining components of the mature Graafian follicle following release of the oocyte. Ruptured blood vessels in the area have leaked blood forming a central clot.
What cells compose a corpus luteum? Granulosa lutein cells (remnant follicle cells) compose 80% of the corpus luteum. Theca lutein cells at the periphery make up the remaining 20%. These cells produce progesterone and estrogen.
What happens to the corpus if pregnancy occurs? It continues to secrete LH maintaining the endometrium
What happens to the corpus structure if pregnancy does not occur? The absence of leutinizing hormone (LH) being secreted will lead to its degeneration - forming the corpus luteum of menstruation.
What is a corpus albicans? Invasion of the corpus luteum of menstration by fibroblasts, becoming fibrotic and ceasing to function (secrete hormones). It is eventually resorbed.
What gives the corpus albicans its “white” appearance? The fibrous tissue formed by the invading fibroblasts.
What are atretic follicles? The unsuccessfully developed mature follicles that did not ovulate become atretic follicles.
What happens if two mature follicles ovulate and are fertilized? Ovulation of two mature follicles (and subsequent fertilization) result in fraternal (non-identical) twins.
How do paternal twins arise? A single fertilized oocyte divides into two separate oocytes. These twins have the same sex and general appearance.
What is the structure of the ovarian medulla? Primarily fibroblasts in a collagen and elastic fiber meshwork.
List the various cell types found here and the function/secretion of each? Fibroblasts - secrete collagen/elastic fibers; epitheloid interstitial cells - secreting estrogens; Hilus cells - secreting androgens.
How do the fimbriae approximate the ovary to capture the ovulated oocyte? The veins of the uterine tube wall become engorged with blood distending the tube and bringing it into contact with the fimbraie.
What are the 3 layers of the uterus? Endometrium, myometrium, adventitia/serosa.
Which layer(s) of the uterus are shed monthly? The stratum functionale (upper) layer of the endometrium. The stratum basale of this layer remains to regenerate the shed layer.
What are the various layers of the endometrium? The stratum functionale and basale.
Name two type of blood vessels arising from the myometrium Coiled helical aa. and the straight aa
Which blood vessel is involved in activation of menstruation? The helical aa. rupture flushing the overyling layer(s) fvrom the uterine wall. Straight aa. only supply the undereying stratum basale.
How are the muscle fibers of the myometrium arranged? 3 distinct layers of smooth muscle exist: the inner and outer layers are longitudinally arranged while the middle layer is circular in disposition.
What is the stratum vasculare? The richly vascularized layer of myometrium containming arcuate aa.
Classify the lignin of the cervix and cervical canal. Is this lining shed monthly? Lumen of the cervix is lined by a mucus-secreting simple columnar epi. The outer (vaginal) surface is stratified squamous epi. The cervix does NOT shed its epithelial lining monthly.
List the 3 main phases of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle. Menstrual phase (days 1-4); proliferative phase (days 4-14); secretory phase (days 15-28).
Which one correlates with the ovarian follicular development cycle? The proliferative phase
What causes the epithelium to be “flushed” from the endometrial layer? Rupturing of dilated helical aa. on day 1 of the cycle.
Classify the epithelial lining of the vagina. Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium.
Why is this type of epithelium located here? Wear and tear type suited for friction during intercourse and stretch during childbirth.
From where does vaginal lubrication arise? The vestibular glands outside the vaginal oriface.
Classify the type of glands comprising the mammary gland Compound tubuloalveolar glands.
What is the function of myoepithelial cells? To gently squeeze the secretory cells of the mammary gland to assist in secretion.
What is colostrums and how long is it secreted? Protein-rich fluid secreted during breast enlargement in pregnancy and up to the first few days after partuition. It is then replaced with milk production/secretion.
Created by: wiechartm