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Early Human history

Prehistory Human history in the period before recorded events, know mainly through study/research
History The branch of knowledge dealing with past events. Recorded history after invention of writing
Oral Tradition A community's cultural and historical traditions passed down by word of mouth or without written instruction
Neolithic The new stone age; marked by domestication of animals the development of writing, stone, metal tools
Forensics A systematic, scientific approach to investigate and analyze physical evidence to solve a crime or answer to a scientific question. (EX: CSI or Bones)
Forensics Archaeology The application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement
Radio Carbon Dating The determination of the age of objects of organic origin by measurements of the radio activity of their carbon content
Clovis of or pertaining to a Paleo-Indian cultural tradition of North America, esp. the American Southwest
Genetic Drift Random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usually of small populations (DNA)
Archaeologist The scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments and other remains
Smithsonian Institution An institution in Washington, D.C., founded in 1846 with a grant left by James Smithson
N.A.G.P.R.A Native American Graves and preservations and repatriation act; law that requires that all ancient skeletons on grave sites be considered Native American remains
Caucasian Anthropology of, pertaining to, or characteristic of one of the traditional racial divisions of humankind, marked by fair to dark skin, straight to curly hair etc.
Migration the process or act of migrating; movement by humans, animals, birds etc.
Nomads a people or tribe that has no permanent home but moves about from place to place, usually seasonally and often following a traditional route according to the state of food supply
Domesticate to convert (animals, plants etc.) to domestic uses; tame
Fertile bearing, producing, or capable of producing vegetation, crops etc. "fertile soil"
Atlatl Spear or dart thrower made from wood or bone that acts as an extension of the human arm allowing the projectile to be thrown with more force
Neanderthal Fossils of early humans found in Neanderthal, Germany who lived in Western Europe, Western Asia etc.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens Meaning wise mane or the first modern humans. The first anatomically modern humans emerged around 100,000 years ago part of the second migration out of East Asia. Smarter than Neanderthals
Hominid Walks upright on two legs, not on all fours
Bering Land Bridge land connecting Alaska (N. America) and Siberia (Asia) that was exposed during the last Ice Age when sea levels were much lower due to massive glaciers
Glaciers A huge, slow moving mass of ice and snow that retain vast amount of water, and slowly grind and shape the land surface beneath. The north American glacier is believed to have been over 2 miles thick
Ice Age There have been 11 ice ages in Earth's 4.6 billion year history. Last ice age was 11,000 years ago. All the continents were mostly covered by extensive glaciers
Australopithecus meaning southern ape; this early hominid discovered in South Africa combined walked upright and combined features of both apes and man (known as Lucy, 3'6 tall with hand and feet like apes - 3 million years old
Ardipithecus Ramidus discovered in Ethiopia, East Africa, (Ardi) was small brained and shows an unexpected mix of advanced characteristics. She walked upright on the ground, but used four limbs to swing on trees. 4.4 million years old
Denisovan Hominids discovered in Siberia who lived about 40,000 years ago and based on DNA tests, appear to have been interbred with modern humans (cro-magnon)
Homo Latin for the family of man
Homo Erectus Meaning "upright man" ; also known as Java Man
Homo Habilis Meaning handy man, so named by Louis Leakey because of the stone tools found near the skeletal remains
B.C. Before Christ
B.C.E. Before the common era; used in place of B.C.
A.D. Anno Dominum (Latin for "in the year of our lord")
C.E. Common Era; used in place of A.D.
Decade A period of 10 years
Century A period of 100 years
Millennium A period of 1,000 years
Era A historical period distinguished by certain important or significant happenings (ex: the modern era)
Louis Leakey British archaeologist who discovered Homo Habilis in East Africa
Morphology Physical characteristics or traits of the human skull, such as height, width of cheek bones, shape of eye sockets, chin shape etc.
Paleoithic Meaning old stone age
Kennewick Man Name given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric man found along the Columbia River in 1996. Bones carbon dated to 9,000 years old.
Flint Type of mineral that could be fashioned into spear points, arrow heads and knives commonly used by Neolithic hunter gatherers through a process called Flint Napping. Also can start fires. Flint is hard.
Hunter Gatherers early nomadic humans who migrated following their food supply (animal herds, fish, fruits, berries, nuts, roots etc.)
Obsidian Shiny black sedimentary rock also used to make weapons and cutting tools by Neolithic hunter gatherers
Created by: mckaytalia
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