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UKCD Histo Male Repr

answers to test objectives for male reproductive system

QuestionAnswer
What is the tough CT capsule of the testis called? Tunica albuginea.
What is the posteriorly thickened region of the Tunica albuginea called? Mediastinum testis.
What traverses (crosses) the Mediastinum testis? The rete testis.
What is the outer serous layer covering the testis called? Visceral tunica vaginalis.
What is the function of the Visceral tunica vaginalis serous layer? Allow friction-free movement of the tesis within the scrotum
Outline the pathway for a spermatozoa from its site of production into the ductus deferens. Seminiferous tubule, tubuli recti, rete testis, efferent ductules, epidymis, ductus deferens.
What is the structural/functional unit of the testis? Lobule.
What is contained within each of the lobule str/fcnal units? 1-4 seminferous tubules and intervening interstitial cells.
Name the two compartments of the wall of the seminiferous tubule. The basal and adluminal compartments.
What is the function of the light junctions found In the seminiferous tubule? Prevent an immune response against the newly differentiating “foreign” germ cells (Sperm)
Name the two cell types found in the wall of the seminiferous tubule. Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells.
List the functions of the sertoli cells. Physical and nutritional support of the developing spermatocytes; synthesize and release androgen-binding protein that binds to testosterone and allows the seminiferous tubule to retain it.
What is holocrine secretion and give an example Where the whole cell is secreted - not necessarily in a living state. An example is the sebaceous gland (non-living) or the testis (living).
Where are the interstitial cells (of Leydig) located? Between the tightly coiled seminiferous tubules within a testicular lobule.
What do the interstitial cells secrete? Testosterone.
What does testosterone hormone do? Controls the development/differentiation of the spermaocytes.
List the intratesticular genital ducts. Efferent ductules, ductus epipdidymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and ejaculatory duct.
Between (connecting) which structures are each found? Efferent ductules connect rete testis w/ epididymis. epididymis connects efferent ductules w/ ductus deferens; ductus deferens connects the epididymis with the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct connects the ductus deferens to the prostatic urethra.
Are the cells lining these ducts ciliated? If so which ones? Why? Efferent ductules nonciliated; ductus epididymis and ductus deferens exhibit stereocilia (non-motile);. Cilia are not needed as the propulsive force for ejaculation is provided by smooth muscle contraction in the walls of these tubules..
What type of epithelium lines each duct? Efferent ductules = simple cuboidal; ductus epididymis & ductus deferens = pseudostratified columnar; ejaculatory duct = simple columnar.
Which duct has a thick muscular wall? Why? Ductus deferens. For generating propulsive ejaculatory force.
How does this duct system terminate? Empties into the prostatic urethra.
Where does seminal fluid enter the duct system? In the ejaculatory duct.
What is the function of seminal fluid and how does it accomplish this? Provide an energy source for the spermatocytes by being a fructose-rich fluid.
What type of epithelium lines the spaces within the seminal vesicle? Pseudostratified columnar
How is the prostate gland organized? 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands arranged into 3 layers or groups: mucosal, submucosal and main.
What empties into the prostatic urethra? Prostatic fluid, spermatocytes and seminal fluid.
What are prostatic concretions? Calcified glycoproteins the number ofdwhich increase with age.
What role does prostatic fluid play in the ejaculate? Forms the serous, white fluid-like portion of the ejaculate
What type of epithelium lines the prostatic lumena? Is it ciliated? Lining varies from simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar. It is not ciliated.
Where are the bulbourethral glands located? At the root of the penis in the deep perineal space/pouch.
What is bulbourethral gland function and how do they accomplish it? They produce mucus to lubrictae the urethra prior to ejaculation.
What are the various regions of a mature spermatozoa and the function of each? 1. The head: contains acrosomal cap required to penetrate the egg; 2. Tail - neck: connects the head to the tail; middle piece - mitochondria for energy for swimming; principal piece - fibrous sheath to support the tail; end piece - terminal segment.
How is the penis organized? 3 cylinders of erectile tissue, two dorsal sharing a common septum, and one ventral.
How does the various cylinders differ from one another? The corpora cavernosa have a thick tunica albuginea to allow them to become extremely rigid (for erection) whereas the corpus spongiosum has a thinner capsule.
Why does the corpus spongiosum not have as thick a tunica albuginea? The corpus spongiosum does not become as rigid, allowing the urethra to remain patent during erection for ejaculation
How is an erection accomplished? Blood flow through A-V shunt is reduced via parasympathetic constriction of SM in the walls of this region. Blood flows, into the erectile tissue, compressing the venous exits, trapping the blood within the erectile tissue and penis becomes erect.
Why does clasping the penis at its base retain an erection? It closes off venous outflow from the erectile tissue maintaining the erection.
Why isn’t maintain an erection good for extended periods? The blood eventually looses its oxygen content and stasis sets in. The erectile tissue begins to die.
What roles do the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS play in ejaculation? Parasympathetic division is responsible for erection (P = point) and the sympathetic division is responsible for ejaculation (S = shoot).
Created by: wiechartm