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UKCD Histo Resp.

answers to test objectives for respiratory system

What are the two portions of the respiratory system? The conduction portion and the respiratory portion.
What is the last part of the conducting portion? The terminal bronchiole
What is the first part of the respiratory portion? The respiratory bronchiole.
Name the remaining components of the respiratory portion? The alveolar duct and alveolar sac.
What is respiratory epithelium? Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
Where do you find respiratory epithelium? Lining the major portions of the conducting portion of the respiratory tract (down to the end of the bronchi).
What is meant by the term mucoperiosteum? Epithelium anchored to underlying bone by a lamina propria and periosteal layers.
Where is olfactory epithelium located? On the roof of the nasal cavity as well as the upper regions of the nasal septum and superior concha.
What cell types compose olfactory epithelium? 1. Olfactory receptor cells; 2. Sustentacular (supporting) cells; 3. Basal cells.
What is the function of olfactory epithelium? Detection of olfactory stimuli (smell)
What is the function of Bowman’s glands? They bathe the olfactory cilia to dissolve olfactory stimuli for detection as well as clean one away for the next to be detected
Which cell type is responsible for regenerating the olifactory epithelium and bowman’s glands? The basal cell can differentiate into either an olfactory receptor cell or a sustentacular cell
What is remarkable about the replenishment by basal cells? This is the only known area where neurons (the olfactory receptor cell is a bipolar neuron) can be regenerated/replaced.
What tissue forms the skeleton of the epiglottis? Elastic cartilage
What type of epithelium lines the epiglottis? Stratified squamous non-keratinizing lines the anterior (dorsal) surface while the posterior (ventral) surface is lined with respiratory epithelium
How is the trachea constructed? A series of C-shaped cartilaginous rings linked by a fibrous membrane.
What type of cartilage forms the c-shaped rings? Hyaline
What fills in the posterior deficiency of these rings? Smooth muscle (the trachealis m.).
Where is the majority of tracheal mucus produced? In the submucosal glands.
In which layer of the trachea is the hyaline cartilage found? The adventitial layer
What is the shape/composition of the primary (extrapulmonary) bronchi? They retain the D-shaped lumen of the trachea (resulting from the C-shaped cartilaginous ring and the flat trachealis m. posteriorly).
How does the structure of the intrapulmonary bronchi differ from that of the trachea? In the intrapulmonary bronchi, cartilage is present in “plates” or “islands” and not the C-shaped rings as in the trachea.
In what major structural aspect do bronchioles differ from bronchi? There is NO cartilage in the walls of a bronchiole, it is replaced with a ring of smooth muscle.
What other more subtle differences exist between bronchioles and bronchi? Absence of submucosal mucous glands, lined by simple epithelium (columnar to cuboidal). Goblet cells are no longer found. Ciliated cells become fewer BUT can still be seen infrequently in regions where globlet cells are no longer found.
How does the structure of a respiratory bronchiole differ from a terminal onchiole? A respiratory bronchiole has alveoli opening off its wall - there are no alveoli present in the terminal bronchiole.
Where are Clara found? In the epithelial lining of bronchioles.
What do Clara cells secrete? A protein-based surfactant-like substance, NOT surfactant
What is the theoretical function of Clara cell’s secretion? Protecting bronchiolar lining from oxidative pollutants and inflammation. It is also thought to play a role in chloride ion transport.
What is an alveolar duct? Regions of the respiratory passageways off which numerous aveleoli open off giving the wall a much less distinct appearance.
What is an alveolar sac? A communcation between alveoli. It is a small opening that penetrates the interalveolar septum between the adjacent alveoli.
List two epithelial cells found in the lining of an alveolus and the function of each? Type I pneumocytes resemble simple squamous epithelial cells and function in lining the alveolus. Type II pneumocytes are secretory cells responsible for the elaboration and release of surfactant.
What is the most common structure within the interalveolar septa? Capillaries
What do type II pnemocytes secrete? Surfactant. Endothelial cells.
What are myelin bodies? Lamellar aggregations of tubular myelin (phospholipid).
What is the make-up and function of surfactant? protein-lipid complex (50% cholesterol, 40% phospholipid complex, 10% protyein),forms surface monolayer over cells lining alveoli, functions in lowering surface tension of alveoli so surfaces do not stick after collapse during expiration.
What is the most common migratory cell type within the interalveolar septum? Macrophages.
Why is the function of macrophages so important? Cleans up debris etc., transferred from the surface of the alveolar lumen into the interalveolar septum.
Besides RBC’S, what is the second most common cell type in the interalveolar septum? Endothelial cells
What is the function of alveolar macrophages? In addition to cleaning the interalveolar septum, they enter the alveolus and remove degraded surfactant from the alveolar surface.
What is a dust cell? An alveolar macrophage located in the alveolar lumen.
What structures compose the blood air barrier? A monolayer of surfactant; type I pneumocyte; its basement membrane; a variable amount of intervening CT; the basement membrane of the endothelial cell; and finally the endothelial cell.
What features does this barrier share with others in the body (ie. Blod thymic, blood brain)? The endothelial cell and its basement membrane.
What is the difference between the thick and thin portions of the blood-air barrier? The presence of a type II pneumocyte and/or larger amount of intervening CT or CT cells.
What is the supposed function of each region of this barrier? Oxygen exchange occurs over the thin portions of the blood-air barrier most effectively. Thick portions of the blood-air barrier are sites for accumulation of tissue fluid.
Created by: wiechartm



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