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study for the End of Coarse exam

Homestead Act western settlers received 160 acres of free land if they lie on it for 3 to 5 years
agricultural surplus everyone farmed, producing large amount of food that nobody needed, forced prices to fall; supply greater than the demand
deflation when the prices on goods go down
business monopolies when business controls all of the supplies and raise the prices
Business Trust company that holds the control of many small businesses
Farmers' Alliance organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed in the 1870s and 1880s
Grange Patrons of Husbandry
greenback unit of paper currency first issued by the federal government during the Civil War
populism political movement representing mainly farmers that favored free coinage of silver and the goverment control of railroads and other large industries
industrialization rapid growth of our nation's cities and factories in the late 1800s
Interstate Commerce Act passes in 1887 allowing the government to regulate railroad rates for farmers
tarrifs tarrifs are lowered to bring cost of imports down and in doing so foreign countries countries bought more than farmers
urbanization immigrants, southern blacks, and failed farmers flocked to cities creating large cities and urban problems
Cross of Gold speech speech calling for gold
Bessemer process take carbon out of iron to make steel; build skyscrapers, bridges, and boats; built large cities, transportation, and connections
telephone gets rid of the telegraph; people talk instantly to each other; communicate faster
AC current electricity; people stop using candles; less fires; more inventions needed
immigrants coming to the east coast came from Europe; got jobs and money in New York City and Philadelphia
immigrants coming to the west coast came from Asia; got jobs and money in San Francisco and Los Angeles
great migration African Americans come from the south to northern cities; cities go from white to black during this time; creates Harlem Renaissance
political machines politicians who use votes from immigrants for jobs to gain places; boss tweed from New York; fire departments wouldn't put out the fires of opponents houses
Andrew Carnegie owner of the U.S. Steel
John D. Rockefeller owner of Standard Oil
J.P. Morgan owner of U.S. Banks
Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Morgan created illegal monopolies; intimidated and illegally kept control of each industry
factory experience no bathroom breaks, no lunch, no 12-to-16-hour days; used women and children for labor because it was cheap; low wages, no rights
triangle shirtwaist disaster 141 women burned alive; locked doors to keep working leads to no exit in a fire
racism on immigration immigrants were looked down on
Chinese Exclusion Act told Chinese we would only accept educated immigrants
gentlemen's agreement segregation in schools, etc.; Japan gets mad, U.S. agrees to treat the Japanese better if any educated was Japs to U.S.
Ida Tarbell American teacher, author, and journalist known for her book "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
Upton Sinclair American author who wrote the book "The Jungle"
"The Jungle" book written by Sinclair
Muckrakers reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magezines and a tradition of investigative journalism reports
planned economy private businesses directed by the state all businesses controlled
market economy market decides the outcome and production
mixed economy government helps in some areas of production but allows market to decide outcome usually
Knights of Labor largest union combining crafts and industrial workers
hayworker riot planned strike that turns violent and public begins to dislike unions
social gospel movement women begin assimilating immigrants into U.S. Culture
settlement houses private houses connected to help with assimilation, helped immigrants learn English, apply for jobs, get housing
hull house Chicago started by Jane Adams, took many immigrants, and was used as model as for other settlement houses
Social Darwinism immigrants who adapted to new environment succeeded and moved up U.S. Society while others who didn't fall behind or died
suffrage movement women gained political power by helping immigrants and then get the right to vote
Created by: Tyl3r10959