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APUSH Imperialism

1890-1909

QuestionAnswerImportance
Philippe Bunau-Varilla French engineer of French Canal Company Signed Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty w/ US to permit US to build the Panama Canal
Philippine Commission Formed by President McKinley in 1899 to deal with the Filipinos William Taft (future president) headed the organization & developed a strong attachment w/ the Filipinos
Algeciras conference TR arranges international conference in 1906 to mediate North African disputes This arrangement & the Treaty of Portsmouth prompted TR to receive the Noble Peace Prize
Yellow Journalism Atrocity stories are created for better circulation & promotion of imperialism Journalists like William Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer were imperialistic who described foreign exploits as manly adventures
Teller Amendment Adopted by US legislatures in 1898 before the Spanish-American War US promised that when they overthrow Spain, Cubans will get their freedom
William McKinley Republican president who won 1896 & 1900 elections, beating William Jennings Bryan in both elections Supported gold standard & imperialism
Colonel George Washington Goethals West Point engineer Organized the workers & construction of the Panama canal
Admiral Cervera Commander of Spanish fleet during the Spanish-American War Ordered by Spanish government to go to Santiago harbor in Cuba & fight US
Jones Act Government structure set up by US in Philippines after the US victory in the Spanish-American War William Taft (appointed by US president) is 1st governor of Philippines; 2-house legislature is set up
William Jennings Bryan Democratic candidate in 1896, 1900, 1908 but lost to McKinley (1896, 1900) & Taft (1908) Radiated honey, sincerity, and energy; gave "Cross of Gold" speech in 1896 at the Democratic National Convention
Midway Islands Located midway b/w US & China US got islands by annexation
Queen Liliuokalani Last resigning queen of Hawaii Overthrown by US white planters in Hawaii b/c they wanted annexation of Hawaii
Insular Cases In 1901, Supreme Ct is divided but proclaims that flag does outrun Constitution Means that Filipinos & Puerto Ricans were subject to US rule even if they do not have US rights
1896 Election B/w Republic McKinley (supported gold standard) & Democratic William Jennings Bryan (supported coinage of free silver) McKinley won
Root-Takahira Agreement Agreement in 1908 b/w US & Japan after the US battleships, Great White Fleet, sailed around world US & Japan pledge to respect each other's territorial possessions in Pacific & to uphold Open Door policy in China
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty Agreement between US & Britain Neither country had exclusive rights to Panama
James G. Blaine Republican Sec of State for Presidents James Garfield & Benjamin Harrison Pushed "Big Sister Policy" to open Latin US markets to US trade & to rally Latin US nations behind America's leadership
Dupuy de Lome Spanish minister forced to resign after de Lome letter incident Yellow journalist Hearst stole de Lome's letter & aroused Spanish-American War; letter written by de Lome calls McKinley a "typical politician"
"Butcher" Weyler Spanish general who herded Cuban civilians into re-concentration camps where many died like dogs his actions outraged the US public & aroused more support for war & imperialism
John Hay Sec of State during McKinley's term as president Sent Open Door note to all major powers to respect Chinese rights; proclaimed Open-Door in effect despite Russia's refusal
1900 Election B/w Republican McKinley/TR & Democratic William Jennings Bryan Issue of election was imperialism (McKinley - supported it; Jennings - opposed it); McKinley won reelection
Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino general, independence leader, politician; became Philippines' first President Helped US troops capture Manila during Spanish-American War; Led Philippine War after US refused to give independence to Philippines
Treaty of Paris 1898 Treaty b/w US & Spanish after Spanish-American War; US gains Puerto Rico & Guam; US buys Philippine Islands from Spain for $20 million; Cuba gains independence from Spain
Alfred Thayer Mahan Imperialistic; wrote The Influence of Sea Power in 1890; said the control of the sea was key to dominance Stimulated naval race among great powersReve
Reverend Josiah Strong Imperialistic; Wrote Out Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis Asserted superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilizations & inspired pious missionaries
George Dewey US commander of American Asiatic Squandron in Hong Kong during the Spanish-American War Destroyed Spanish fleet in May 1898 (400 Spaniard deaths & no American deaths)
Grover Cleveland Democratic president who won 1884 & 1893 elections (first president to have served 2 nonconsecutive terms) Anti-imperialistic & refused annexation of Hawaii after overthrow of Queen Lil
Richard Olney Sec of State during Grover Cleveland's presidency Sent a note to London during Venezuelan Crisis saying that British was flouting Moneroe Doctrine & should submit to Us arbitration
Panama Canal French made first failed attempt to build canal; US successfully completed canal in 1914 before outbreak of WWI) Unified east coast & west coast navies
Roosevelt Corollary "Preventive intervention"; created after German warships sank Venezuelan gunboats in 1903 Addition to Monroe Doctrine; US could intervene, take over customs houses, or pay off debts to keep other powers out of western hemisphere
Theodore Roosevelt (TR) Fought in Rough Riders during Cuban War; VP of McKinley until his assassination; became youngest serving president at age 42 Had "Big Stick Policy" in foreign affairs; greatest contribution was Panama Canal
Philippine Islands Owned by Spain prior to Spanish-American War; Owned by US after Spanish-American War; gained independence from US on July 4, 1946 Filipinos revolted in 1899-1901 Philippine War against US; Filipinos lost
Philippine War Filipinos revolted against US after US refuses to grant them independence Filipinos lost war after Aguinaldo's capture in 1901 (revolt weakened after that)
Anti-Imperialistic League Formed to oppose McKinley administration's expansionist moves Never strong enough due to domestic issues
Colonel William C. Gorgas Took part in Panama Canal construction Exterminated yellow fever in Havana
Hay-Paureforte Treaty In 1901, Britain gives US permission to build canal in Panama British was too busy with unfriendly Europe & South African Boer War, so British let US build canal
Open Door Policy US sends note in 1899 to great powers - Italy accepts; Russia declines; France, Britain, Japan, & Germany agree only if everyone else agrees unconditionally Sec of State John Hay declares Open Door in effect despite Russia's refusual
Boxers Group formed by Chinese Revolted and murdered missionaries & whites in 1900; besieged foreign diplomats in Beijing
Panama Revolution Occurred in November 1903 TR helped revolt by sending US naval forces & blocking Colombian troops' path to isthmus
Great White Fleet 16 US battleships from VA are sent around the world; Slogan: "Join the Navy and See the World" TR regards this as his most important contribution to peace
General William R. Shafter Took part in Spanish-American War Led invading US force during Spanish-American War
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty B/w US & Panama; treaty signed in Washington US buys 10 miles of land from Panama for $10 million
Spanish-American War lasted for 113 days in 1898; b/w Spain & US; fought on Philippine/Pacific & Caribbean (Cuba, Puerto Rico) theaters US had few casualties (most deaths came from disease); US gained prestige after victory
William Seward Sec of State; expansionist Bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 via treaty for $7.2 million
Puerto Rico Owned by Spain prior to Treaty of Paris 1898; Owned by US after Treaty of Paris 1898 Have limited degree of popular government with Foraker Act of 1900
Foraker Act In 1900, US limits Puerto Rico the degree of popular government US does not grant Puerto Rico independence like US did for Cuba
U.S.S. Maine Blew up in Havana harbor in February 1893 US public is outraged; Spain is blamed for explosion; one of causes for Spanish-American War
Platt Amendment Constitution of 1901; US forced Cubans to write Cubans had to agree to US intervention to restore order & the selling/leasing of coaling and naval stations to US
Gentlemen's Agreement Secret agreement b/w US & Japan CA had to repeal offensive school order; Japan had to agree to stop flow of laborers into US
Venezuela Dispute Dispute b/w British & Venezuelans British submitted to US arbitration; British get bulk of what they claimed; British & US develop friendship
Treaty of Portsmouth ends Russo-Japanese War; TR mediates treaty: Japan gets 1/2 of island Sakhalin; Russia doesn't have to pay reparations Japan & US become rivals; Russia & US are no longer friendly; TR wins Noble Peace Prize
Rough Riders Commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood; Organized by TR Fought at El Caney & San Juan Hill with strong support from black regiments; TR gains fame
Big Stick Policy In foreign policy, diplomacy is used then the big stick (navy) if diplomacy fails TR was champion of military and navy prepared-ness
Hawaii Becomes US territory in 1900; admitted as 50th state in 1959 Annexed in 1898 by Mckinley b/c of strategic location in Spanish-American War
Cuba Has 2 revolts against Spain in 1870s & 1895 Gains independence from Spain (as promised by US in Teller Amendment)
Monroe Doctrine Enhanced by Venezuelan crisis when British submitted to US arbitration Meaning changed when TR introduced Roosevelt Corollary: US can intervene to keep European powers from intervening
Russo-Japanese War War fought b/w Russia & Japan in 1904 mainly in Korea; Russia sought China's Manchuria (esp. Port Arthur), but Japan opposed & fought Russia US President TR mediates war in Treaty of Portsmouth; Japan sought US help to end war
Created by: squakie